帖子主题: 09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记  

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发表于:2009-08-12 19:24:53

09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit21)

  Text A The Language of Uncertainty

  第一段

  1. Uncertainty spreads through our lives so thoroughly that it dominates our language.(第一句)

  Spread(传播) through our lives thoroughly=在我们的生活中无处不在

  不确定性在我们的生活中无所不在,以致它支配着我们的语言。

  2. 第二句:is made up in large part of words

  be made up of 构成;in large part 很大程度上

  3. 第五行:“is likely to destroy forever the nation that wages it.”

  Be likely to do sth. 很可能做某事;wage it(the war) 发动战争

  4. 最后一句话:Lacking(现在分词作原因状语,用现分的原因是主语we能够发出lack的动作) any standard for estimating the probability, we are left with(放任) the judgment of the editorial writer.

  因为我们缺乏任何估计这一可能性的标准,只好听任社论作者去做出判断了。

  第二段

  1. 第一句:Such verbal imprecision is not necessarily to be criticized.

  Be necessarily to do sth. 做某件事情没有太大必要

  句中采用了to be criticized是由于主语verbal imprecision(言辞的不精确性)无法发出criticize(批评)的动作。

  这类言辞的不精确性并非一定要受到批评。

  2. 第二句:allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事

  be out of the question 不可能;不能接受;be out of question 没问题

  第三段

  1. 最后一句:can not be reduced to sth./sb.

  be reduced to 转化为

  第四段

  1. 第一句:pin down sth. 准确说明

  2. 最后一句:compare sb./sth. with sb./sth. 拿某人或某事对比

  第五段

  1. First, we find that the number depends, of course, on the items involved.(过去分词作后置定语,表示涉及)

  Depend on 依靠;依赖

  当然,我们首先发现的是数目决定于涉及的事务。

  2. 第三行:However, unrelated(不相关的) areas sometimes show parallel(相似、类似) values.

  然而,同一个词在不相关的领域中有时量值相似。

  3. 第五行:be certain to do sth. 一定做某事

  4. 第六行:signify to sb. 对某人意味着

  be likely to do sth. 很有可能做某事

  第七段

  1. 第一行:Thirdly, there is a marked (过分作定语,表示明显的)change with age.

  数目随年龄显著变化

  2. 第二行:The older the child, the fewer glass balls he will take. 越来越句型

  年龄越大,取得玻璃球就越小。

  3.P603页,上数第二行:in place of 替代

  Text B It Never Rains but It Pours

  第一段

  1. 第二行:used to do sth. 过去常常做某事

  请比较 be/get/become used to doing sth. 习惯做某事

  2. 第五行:regard sth./sb. as 把什么看成

  with no relevance to sb./sth. 与某人或某事没有联系

  第二段

  1. 第一句:Advice about how to live a healthy life is one example of the type of received wisdom which is condensed and passed on to the next generation in the form of proverbs.

  介词about后面是动词不定式to作宾语,动词或介词后可以 特问词 to do sth.的用法。E.g. I don't know where to go.或what to say.

  Received wisdom 公认的智慧

  Pass on to 传与后代

  In the form of 以某种形式

  2. 第四行:There is no smoke without fire. 无风不起浪。

  第三段

  1. 第二行:Don't wash your dirty linen in public. 家丑不可外扬。

  2. 第五行:It's no use crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。

  3. 最后一行:Make the best of a bad job. 亡羊补牢。

  第四段

  1. P615上数第三行:This proverb is based on(基于) an old English law dating back to(追溯到) the 17th century.

  2. P615上数第六行:Hence the idea carried in the proverb that everyone should be allowed to make a mistake without being punished for it.

  因此,格言包含的寓意是,应该允许任何人犯一次错而不受惩罚。

  第五段

  1. 第四行:be harmful to sb. 对某人有害

  2. 第五行:Don't cause trouble when it(指trouble) can be avoided. 能避开时就别去惹麻烦。

  第六段

  1. 第一行:As Britain came into contact with(开始接触) other countries and cultures, English became enriched with(变得丰富多彩) the words and wisdom of different languages.

  随着英国接触别的国家和文化,英语吸收了不同语言的词汇和智慧,因而变得丰富多彩。

  2. 第五行:It(形式主语) is often easier to carry it through to the end(真正的主语) than to (不可省略,因为than前面与后面应该并列同等)stop halfway. (开始了某项危险的事业),坚持到底比半途而废要更容易。

  第七段

  1. 第一行:Some proverbs have been(完成时的使用是因为后面的时间状语为时间段) in the language for 1,000 years.

  2. 第二行:The message here is that someone who stays with you and helps you in times of trouble, rather than(相当于一个介词,表示而不是) turning their back, is a true friend.

  意思是在困难时帮助你,和你共患难而不是对你置之不理的人才是你真正的朋友。

  第八段

  1.第三行:remind sb. that 从句 提醒某人某事

  3. P616. 上数第一行 If someone buys you lunch, they will expect a favor in return.(回报)

  如果有人请你吃午饭,他会指望将来你给他回报。

  第九段

  1. 第一行:Some English people are reluctant to(不愿做某事) use proverbs in their everyday conversation because they see them as(把什么看作) vehicles(表现) of too much used wisdom(陈词滥调)。 有些英国人在日常谈话中不愿使用格言,因为他们把格言看成是陈词滥调的表现。

  2. 第四行:written English 书面英语;spoken English 口头英语

  homely 简明扼要的

  commentary on sth. 点评某事

  最后一行:be useful to sb. 对某人来说很有用


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发表于:2009-08-12 19:25:20

09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit22)

  Text A Current Attitudes toward Physical Fitness

  一、New Words

  1.前缀单词

  1)misuse(vt.) 1.误用,滥用;2.苛待,虐待

  (n.)  误用,滥用

  2)reexamine(vt.) 1.再考,复试;2.再调查,再审查

  2.后缀单词

  1)fitness(n.) 1.适合,恰当,合理;2.健康

  2)involvement(n.) 1.卷入,牵连(in);2.牵连到的事,复杂情况

  3)limitation(n.) 1.限制;2.限度,局限

  4)locker(n.) (公共场所供个人存放衣物用的)带锁的小柜

  5)commitment(n.) 承担的责任或义务,承诺

  6)accomplishment(n.) 1.完成;2.成就;3.[pl.]造诣,技能

  同义词:achievement

  7)positively(ad.) 1.确定地,明确地;2.积极地,肯定地

  3.合成词

  1)time-consuming(a.) 耗费时间的

  2)shortsighted(a.) 1.近视的;2.目光短浅的;

  反义词:longsighted 有远见的

  4.特殊记忆

  1)recreation(n.) 1.消遣,娱乐,娱乐活动;2.(身心)修养

  5.核心单词

  1)assure(n.) 1.使确信,使放心(of);2.向…保证(of)

  句式结构:assure sb of;assure sb that

  For example 1:I assure you of passing the exam. 我保证你能通过考试。

  For example 2:He assured his wife that he would make much money to live a happy life with her. 向他的妻子保证说,他会挣很多钱,同她一起过幸福的生活。

  2)priority(n.) 1.优先,重点,优先权;2.优先考虑的事

  For example:At present study is my priority. 目前学习是我的重点。

  3)schedule(n.) 时间表,日程安排表,即 timetable

  (vt.) 安排,排定;同义词 arrange

  For example:The plane is scheduled to take off at four p.m…… 这架飞机定于下午四点起飞。

  4)facility(n.) 1.[常pl.]设备,设施;2.便利,容易;

  同义词:equipment(没有复数形式,表示一套设备)

  5)career(n.) 1.生涯,经历;2.职业,事业

  加“er”不一定是人。如“cooker 炊具、typewriter 打字机”

  6)comment(n.) 1.评论;2.评注;搭配 make comments on/upon:对……做出评论/评注

  (vi.) 1.评论;2.注释;搭配 comment on/upon:意思是评论……

  For example:He is reluctant to make any comments on the matter. 他不愿意对这件事做出任何评论。

  7)maintain(vt.) 1.维持,保持;2.维修,保养

  ① The monitor maintains the order of the class when the teacher is absent.

  当老师不在的时候,班长就维持课堂秩序。

  当 maintain 表示“保持”的时候,用作系动词

  e.g. maintain silent 保持沉默

  e.g. maintain quiet 保持安静

  ② His task is to maintain the highway. 他的任务是维修公路。

  8)approach(vt.) 1.靠近,接近;come near 2.探讨,处理(问题)deal with

  (n.) 1.接近;2.途径,方法

  ① As you approach the town, the first building you can see is the school.

  接近那座城镇的时候,首先看到的是那所学校。

  ② He tried everything to approach the difficult problem.

  他想尽一切方法来处理这个难题。

  ③ The scientists haven't found a correct approach to the disease.

  科学家们尚未找到治疗这一疾病的正确方法。

  二、Text A

  Current Attitudes toward Physical Fitness(当前人们对待健身的种种态度)

  注意:

  1.current 意思是目前的,当前的;

  2.Attitudes 意思是态度。表示“对于……的态度”时,后面一般加“to 或 toward”;

  3.Physical Fitness 意思是健身。

  physical exercise 锻炼身体

  Recently we were told by a student that setting aside time for improving his physical fitness would be a total misuse of his working hours.

  译:最近,有个学生告诉我们说,分出一部分时间去提高身体健康的水平,纯粹是挤占了他的学习时间。

  1.to set aside 1.留出,拨出;2.忽视,不顾;

  同义词:ignore

  ① He set aside half an hour to let us ask questions. 他留出了半小时的时间让我们问一些问题。

  ② On this problem, we should set aside our personal feelings. 在这个问题上,我们应该抛开个人情绪。

  He assured us that he would be no better served by a fitness program than by learning to play bridge.

  译:他想让我相信,让他参加健身培训班和让他学打桥牌同样都是对他没有好处的。

  2.assure sb that/of 意思是让某人相信…、向某人做出承诺…。

  3.no better than 不比…好(多少);几乎等于。

  e.g.:His composition is no better than mine. 他的作文并不比我的好多少。

  no more than 不比…多;仅仅;同…一样(都不多)

  no less than 不比…少;不亚于;同…一样(都不少)

  no longer than 不再

  e.g.:(1)I could no more work out the difficult problem than you. 我和你一样解决不了那道难题。

  (2)She is no less active than she used to be. 她和过去一样活跃。

  (3)China today is no longer than China of the past. 今天的中国不再是从前的中国了。

  College and his preparation for a career were his only priorities. 他把上大学和准备干一番事业摆在了比一切都重要的位置。

  4.prepare for 为了…做准备

  preparation for 为了…做准备:使用其的时候:

  第一、其后面通常用复数形式;

  第二、当 preparation 前面需要用动词的时候,这个动词一般用 make

  e.g. He thinks that receiving education is the very important preparations for the future life.

  他认为受教育是为未来的生活所做的非常重要的准备。

  This student has seen being physically fit as an end rather than the means we know it to be. His opinion is one of the many feelings, pro or con, that people hold about their personal involvement in a physical fitness program.

  译:这个学生把拥有健康的身体看作是最终目标,而不像我们那样把身体健康当作工作学习的一种手段或工具。许多参加健身培训班的人都有着各种不同的感受,有的说好有的说坏,这位学生的意见是各种感受之一。

  5.see … as … 相当于 regard … as:把……看成……。

  6.pro or con 1.正面或反面的理由;2.赞成或反对

  For example:On the subject of emotion, many writers have written many books pro or con. 关于感情这个主题,许多作家已写了许多或赞成或反对的书。

  7.involvement in 介入,参与

  For example:The involvement in politics is usually regarded as a good way of promotion. 参与政治通常被认为是一种提拔/升的好方法。

  Many people, including college students of all ages, spend little time in pursuit of physical fitness.

  很多人,包括各种年龄的大学生,几乎不花时间去追求身体健康。

  including 是介词

  8.短语:in pursuit of 追求,寻求;同义词 be after/seek

  For example:I will be in pursuit of my happiness with all my efforts. 我将尽全力追求我的幸福。

  Certainly some of these individuals may have physical limitations that make activity extremely difficult, and others are engaged in time-consuming activities that until finished do not permit opportunities for recreation.

  译:当然,这些人中有些因为受到生理上的限制以致参加活动极为困难,还有些人从事着耗费时间的事务活动,以致只能等到忙完了这些事务才有可能去参加消遣活动锻炼锻炼。

  9.be engaged in/engage in 忙于;从事;参加

  engaged(a.)从事…的

  For example 1:He has been engaged in teaching for many years. 他已经执教数年了。

  For example 2:At college he often engaged in sports. 在大学时,他经常参加一些运动。

  However, what about the majority who could do much more but do so little? Does one of the following statements sound like you?

  译:但是,大多数人,本来可以多参加些锻炼活动,可是实际上却参加得很少。这些人又怎么样呢?下面这些论调中有哪一种听起来像是你说的呢?

  “I know it's important, but I just don't have time right now.”

  译:“我倒是知道身体健康很重要,不过我现在就是没有时间。”

  “I'm already fit, and with my schedule, I'll have no difficulty staying that way.”

  译:“我的身体已经很健康了,虽然我的时间表安排得很紧,但我要保持现在的健康还是没问题的。”

  10.have(no)difficulties(in)doing sth. 做某事有(无)困难

  For example:I have some difficulties(in)passing five courses one time. 一次通过五门功课对于我来说是有些困难的。

  “I should do more than I do, but I just don't have facilities and I don't get much support from others.”

  译:“我本来应该比我现在参加锻炼的次数更多一些,可是我没有那些健身设备,也没有别人对我多加支持。”

  “Exercise makes me feel terrible. Even when I shower, I get to my next class wet, and probably smelling like a locker room.”

  译:“锻炼使我觉得很不愉快。甚至淋浴以后赶到下一堂的课室中身上还是湿淋淋的,也许会让人闻到我身上的汗腥味好像是在更衣室里一样臭。”

  Unlike these people who have made no commitment to fitness, you may have made a commitment to a physical fitness program that might be rather narrow in scope. If one of the following comments fits you, perhaps you are failing to see the broader values of maintaining a high level of physical fitness.

  译:跟这些没有参加健身活动的人不同,你可能已经参加了健身培训班,但是这个培训班的培训范围可能相当狭窄。如果下列这些说法中有一种正适合你的情况,那也许你还不懂参加高水平的健身活动会对你有更大的价值。

  11.短语:make commitment to 承诺/献身于/投入;commitment on:对于…、关于…

  ① He made a commitment to his parents living with them after retirement.

  他对父母做出了一个承诺,退休后同他们一起生活。

  ② If you make no commitment to your work, you will get nothing.

  如果你没有投入到工作中,你将会一无所获。

  “Everyone in the dorm runs at night. That's why I run.”

  译:“我们宿舍里大家晚上都在跑步。所以我也跑步。”

  “For every 3,500 calories I can 'burn' during exercise, I'll lose a pound of fat. I have only 10 pounds more to drop before Christmas.”

  译:“在锻炼期间,我每'烧'掉3500卡路里,我就减少了一磅脂肪。在**节前我还要再减掉10磅重的脂肪。”

  drop:lose 去掉

  “This weekend will be cool and nice. Saturday looks like a good day for a personal record.”

  译:“这个周末天气将会又凉快又舒适。星期六看起来像是个创造个人记录的好日子。”

  “Some would say I have a fear of death. Heck, I just want to live a long time.”

  “有人会说我怕死。见鬼去吧。我只是想长寿。”

  If you see your own attitude represented by one of these comments, might you be shortsighted in your reason for valuing fitness? We would suggest that you reexamine your approach to fitness and its ability to positively influence other aspects of your life.

  译:如果你觉得上面的说法之一正是代表了你自己的态度,也许你参加健身运动的理由会有点儿目光短浅吧?我们建议您重新检查一下您对待健康的态度、重新检查一下身体健康对您生活的其它一些方面能有哪些好的影响。

  13.短语1:reason for … 的原因(理由等)

  ① Her reason for leaving home is poor grade. 她离家的原因是她糟糕的成绩

  ② That heavy rain is the reason for the flood. 这场水灾是那场大雨引起的。

  14.短语2:approach to 对于…的态度(方法等);

  同义表达:attitude to/toward

  For example:His approach to this problem is very clear. 他对这个问题的态度是非常明确的。

  Ask yourself, “What could I achieve if I were really in top physical condition?” Because fitness levels are easily observed and can be measured, you can quickly start to see the emerging person you are capable of becoming. Almost daily you can see progress and accomplishment.

  扪心自问:“倘若我的身体真的达到了最棒的状态,那么我能取得什么成就呢”?因为身体健康的水平是很容易观察到的、也能测出来,那么你很快就能看出来,你能够成为一个脱颖而出的人。几乎每天你都能看到你的进步和成就。

  emerging 脱颖而出的

  Keep in mind, however, that all people are different and some may progress faster than others. In the final analysis, we think that although fitness will not guarantee that you will live longer, it can help you enjoy the years you do live.

  但要记住,所有的人都是不同的,有些人可能比另外一些人进行得快一些。归根结底,虽然健康的体魄不会保证你一定会延长寿命,但是健康的体魄有助于你享受有生之年的欢乐。

  15.keep/bear…in mind 记住

  For example:You must keep/bear what your father said in mind. 你必须记住你父亲的话。

  Progress 在这里是动词,表示“取得进步”

  16.in the final/last analysis 用在段落或文章最后,用来总结,表示“归根结底”

  For example: In the final analysis, business is business. 归根结底,公事公办。

  三、Vocabulary Exercises

  Ⅰ。For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper form of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.

  1. misuse(v./n.)滥用、误用、虐待;

  use(n./v.)使用、运用;

  useful(a.)有用的;

  useless(a.)无用的;

  a. We should not misuse our natural resources.

  b. This expression has been actually used in modern Chinese literature.

  c. A TV station is absolutely useless without electricity.

  d. The book is particularly useful for foreign students.

  2. involve(v.)牵扯,涉及,影响

  involvement(n.)牵扯、涉及

  involved(a.)牵扯到的;不易懂的 complicated

  a. All the workers are/were involved in the strike.

  b. His involvement in the dispute led to many troubles.

  c. None of the students can analyze that involved sentence.

  d. The task involved much difficulty.

  3. commit(v.)使承担、使保证;

  commitment(n.)承担的义务、责任、承诺

  a. We can meet our present commitment in less time and with fewer men.

  b. He committed himself to the cause of revolution.

  c. We have made a commitment to pay our bill on time.

  4. accomplish(v.)完成;

  accomplished(a.)完成了的;有才艺的;

  accomplishment(n.)成就

  a. The young lady is a brilliantly accomplished singer.

  b. We tried to settle the dispute but accomplished nothing.

  c. It was a real accomplishment to carry out the railway project in a month.

  Ⅱ。Fill in the following blank with the words listed below in their proper forms.

  Fitness  assure  pursuit  schedule  time-consuming

  Comment  shortsighted     aspect   emerge  scope

  1. What the editorial said on this subject was beyond the scope of my understanding.

  2. To kill the hen to get the eggs is shortsighted.

  3. The police car raced through the streets in pursuit of another car.

  4. The doctor assured us of the safety of the operation.

  5. Many facts emerged as a result of the investigation.

  6. To calculate the cost of building a new laboratory is time-consuming.

  7. Fitness programs are becoming more and more popular in China.

  8. HHave you any comments to make on my book A Complete Collection of Chinese Proverbs?

  9. The strike will begin on schedule.

  10. The experts studied every aspect of the subject.

  Text B People and Colors

  一、New Words

  1.前缀单词

  1)refreshing(a.)使精力恢复的,使人清爽的

  2)react(vi.)1.反应,起作用;2.起反作用(against)

  2.后缀单词

  1)society(n.)社会;social(a.)社会的;

  sociable(a.)1.好交际的;2.友善的

  2)energetic(a.)有力的,精力旺盛的;energy(n.)精力,精神

  3)cheerful(a.)快乐的,高兴的

  4)happiness(n.)1.幸福;2.愉快

  5)unhappiness(n.)1.不幸福,不快乐;2.不幸,不祥

  6)darkness(n.)1.黑暗;2.晦暗

  7)loneliness(n.)孤独,**

  lonely(a.)孤独的,**的;alone(a.)独自一人的

  For example:Although I am alone, I am not lonely. 虽然我独身一人,但是我从不**。

  8)manufacture(vt.)制造,加工

  (n.)1.制造,制造业;2.产品

  manufacturer(n.)制造商,厂商

  9)dignified(a.)可敬的,高贵的

  10)generalize(vt.)1.归纳,概括出,从…引出一般结论;2.推广

  3.合成词

  1)businessman(n.)商人

  4.含有颜色的单词

  1)violet(n.)1.紫罗兰;2.紫罗兰色;

  (a.)紫罗兰色的

  2)purple(n.)紫色,紫红色;

  (a.)紫色的

  3)pink(a.)粉红色的,桃红色的;

  (n.)粉红色,桃红色

  5.表示节假日的单词

  1)Valentine's Day(= Saint Valentine's Day)(n.)情人节(2月14日)

  2)Halloween(n.)(西方风俗)万圣节前夕(指10月31日,这一夜儿童可**玩闹)

  3)Thanksgiving Day(n.)感恩节(美国和加拿大的例假日,在美国是11月的第四个星期四,在加拿大是10月的第二个星期一)

  4)Easter Sunday(= Easter Day, Easter)(n.)复活节(在3月20日或该日后月圆以后第一个星期日)

  6.表示军队

  navy(n.)海军;army 陆军;air force 空军

  7.需要注意的单词

  1)caution(n.)1.小心,谨慎;2.告诫,警告;

  (vt.)告诫,警告

  同义词:warn (v.);warning(n.)

  warn sb not to do sth 警告某人不要做某事

  caution sb not to do sth 警告某人不要做某事

  For example:The teacher cautioned the student not to cheat on exams. 老师警告那个学生以后考试不要作弊。

  2)manufacture(vt.)制造,加工;

  (n.)1.制造,制造业;2.产品

  同义词:make;produce

  3)generalize(vt.)1.归纳,概括出,从…引出一般结论;2.推广

  For example:After reading, you should generalize the main idea of this article. 读过之后,你应当概括一下这篇文章的大意。

  8.Phrases Expressions

  to remind … of 使 … 想起 …

  For example:The song reminds me of my childhood. 这首歌让我想起了我的童年。

  to react to 1.对…做出反应;2.因受影响而改变行动

  For example:He immediately reacted to the matter. 他很快就对那个问题做出了回应。

  二、Text B

  People and Colors(不同的人与不同的颜色)

  One person chooses a bright red car, but another prefers a dark green. One family paints the living room a sunny yellow, but another family uses pure white. One child wants a bright orange ball, but another wants a light blue one. Psychologists and businessmen think these differences are important.

  一个人选择鲜红色的小轿车,而另一个人则宁可要墨绿色的。一户人家把客厅粉刷成金黄色,而另一户人家则使用纯白色。一个孩子要鲜橙色的球,而另一个孩子则要浅蓝色的。心理学家和商人们认为这些差别是很重要的。

  prefer:(vt.)更喜欢

  In general, people talk about two groups of colors: warm colors and cool colors. Researchers think that there are also two groups of people: people who prefer warm colors and people who prefer cool colors.

  总的来说,人们谈论的是两大类颜色:暖色和冷色。研究人员认为世人也有两大类:喜欢暖色的人和喜欢冷色的人。

  in general = generally(speaking)通常,大体上,一般来说

  The warm colors are red, orange, and yellow. Where there are warm colors and a lot of light, people usually want to be active. People think that red, for example, is exciting. Sociable people, those who like to be with others, like red. The cool colors are green, blue, and violet. These colors, unlike warm colors, are relaxing. Where there are cool colors, people are usually quiet. People who like to spend time alone often prefer blue.

  红、橙、黄是暖色。凡有暖色并有充足光线的地方,人们通常想要积极活动。例如,人们认为红色会使人心潮激动。喜欢社交的人,喜欢和他人在一起的人都喜欢红色。绿、蓝、紫都是冷色。冷色与暖色不同,它们会使人放松。在冷色环境里,人们通常都很安静。凡是喜欢独自一人度过时光的人都喜欢蓝色。

  Red may be exciting, but one researcher says that time seems to pass more slowly in a room with warm colors than in a room with cool colors. He suggests that a warm color, such as red or orange, is a good color for a living room or restaurant. People who are relaxing or eating do not want time to pass quickly. Cool colors are better for offices or factories if the people who are working there want time to pass quickly.

  红色会令人激动兴奋,不过某研究人员表示,人在暖色房间里似乎会觉得比在冷色房间里时间过得慢。这位研究人员认为,红、橙之类的暖色适用于客厅和饭店。凡是休闲或进餐的人都不希望时间过得很快。如果人们在办公室或工厂上班,都希望时间过得很快,那么把环境弄成冷色就比较好。

  Researchers do not know why people think some colors are warm and other colors are cool. However, almost everyone agrees that red, orange, and yellow are warm and that green, blue, and violet are cool. Perhaps warm colors remind people of warm days and the cool colors remind them of cool days. Because in the north the sun is low during winter, the sunlight appears quite blue. Because the sun is higher during summer, the hot summer sunlight appears yellow.

  研究人员现在还都不知道,为什么人们认为有些颜色是暖的,而另外一些颜色是冷的。但是几乎人人都承认红、橙、黄是暖色,而绿、蓝、紫是冷色。也许暖色能使人们想起温暖的日子,而冷色使人想起冷的日子。因为在北方冬季太阳低,使人觉得似乎阳光有点发蓝,而在炎热的夏季太阳高一些,令人觉得阳光似乎是黄色的。

  短语:remind sb of sth 让某人想到了……

  单词:appear:出现、显现或者显出…、好像…

  People associate colors with different objects, feelings, and holidays. Red, for example, is the color of fire, heat, blood, and life.

  人们把不同的颜色和不同的事物、不同的感觉、不同的节日联系在一起。例如,红色是火、热、鲜血和生命的颜色。

  短语:associate … with … 把……和……联系起来

  People say red is an exciting and active color. They associate red with a strong feeling like anger. Red is used for signs of danger, such as STOP signs and fire engines. The holiday which is associated with red is Valentine's Day. On February 14, Americans send red hearts to people they love.

  人们说红色是令人激动和积极的颜色。人们把红色同愤怒这种强烈的感情联系在一起,红色被用作危险的信号,例如,停止的标志、救火车的标志。跟红色联系在一起的节日是情人节。在每年2月14日,美国人都给他们所爱的人纷纷寄送红心。

  Orange is the bright, warm color of leaves in autumn. People say orange is a lively, energetic color. They associate orange with happiness. The holidays which are associated with orange are Halloween in October and Thanksgiving Day in November. On October 31 many Americans put large orange pumpkins in their windows for Halloween.

  橙色是秋天叶子的鲜暖色。人们说橙色是充满生机的积极向上的颜色。人们把橙色和幸福快乐联系在一起。与橙色有联系的两个节日是10月份的万圣节和11月份的感恩节。在10月31日很多美国人把橙色的南瓜灯摆在窗户上来欢度万圣节。

  Yellow is the color of sunlight. People say it is a cheerful and lively color. They associate yellow, too, with happiness. Because it is bright, it is used for signs of caution.

  黄色是阳光的颜色。人们说黄色是一种欢快的充满生机的颜色。人们也把黄色和幸福快乐联系在一起。因为黄色鲜艳,黄色也被用作警告的标志。

  Green is the cool color of grass in spring. People say it is a refreshing and relaxing color. Machines in factories are usually painted light green.

  绿色是冷色,是春季草坪的颜色。人们说,绿色使人觉得大地回春万象更新,是一种使人心旷神怡的颜色。工厂的机器大多被漆成嫩绿色。

  Blue is the color of the sky, water, and ice. Police and Navy uniforms are blue. When people are sad, they say “I feel blue.” They associate blue with feelings like unhappiness and fear.

  蓝色是天空、水和冰的颜色。警察和海军的制服都是蓝色的。当人们感到悲伤时,会说“I feel blue”(我觉得很沮丧)。人们把不愉快和恐惧之类的感觉同蓝色联系在一起。

  Violet, or purple, is the deep, soft color of darkness or shadows. People consider violet a dignified color. They associate it with loneliness. On Easter Sunday people decorate baskets with purple ribbons.

  紫罗兰色,或者说紫色,是阴暗、深沉、轻柔的颜色。人们认为紫罗兰色是一种高贵庄严的颜色。人们把它与孤独联系在一起。复活节时,人们用紫色的丝带装饰篮子。

  White is the color of snow. People describe white as a pure, clean color. They associate white with a bright clean feeling. Doctors and nurses normally wear white uniforms. On the other hand, black is the color of night. People wear black clothes at serious or formal ceremonies.

  白色是雪的颜色。人们把白色描绘成纯洁干净的颜色。人们把白色同明快纯洁的感觉联系在一起。医生和护士通常都穿白色的制服。与此相反,黑色是黑夜的颜色。人们在庄严而正式的仪式上都穿黑色服装。

  Businessmen know that people choose products by color. Businessmen want to manufacture products which are the colors people will buy. Fox example, an automobile manufacturer needs to know how many cars to paint red, how many green, and how many black. Good businessmen know that young people prefer different colors than old people do and men prefer different colors than women do.

  商人们都懂得人们是按颜色来选购商品的。厂商们都想要生产出人们愿意去购买的颜色的产品。例如,汽车生产商需要知道有多少汽车要喷成红色,多少喷成绿色,多少喷成黑色。有经验的商人们都知道年轻人跟老年人比起来,更喜欢多种多样的颜色。男人跟女人比,男人更喜欢多种不同的颜色。

  Young children react to the color of an object before they react to its shape. They prefer the warm colors - red, yellow, and orange. When people grow older, they begin to react more to the shape of an object than to its color. The favorite color of adults of all countries is blue. Their second favorite color is red, and their third is green.

  孩子对一件物品的颜色先做出反应后,才会对物品的形状做出反应。孩子喜欢暖色——红、黄、橙。随着年龄的增长,人们会对物品形状的反应多于对物品颜色的反应。所有国家的成年人最喜欢的颜色是蓝色,第二种喜欢的颜色是红色,第三种喜欢的颜色是绿色。

  On the whole, women prefer brighter colors than men do. Almost everyone likes red, but women like yellow and green more than men do. Pink is usually considered a feminine color. Blue is usually considered a masculine color.

  大体上,妇女比男人更喜欢鲜艳的颜色。几乎每个人都喜欢红色。但是,女人和男人比起来,女人更喜欢黄色和绿色。粉红色通常被认为是女性的颜色。蓝色通常被认为是男性的颜色。

  固定短语:on the whole 大体上,基本上;相当于 in general.

  As a result, people dress baby girls in pink and baby boys in blue. However, it is dangerous to generalize because taste changes. For example, years ago businessmen wore only white shirts; today they wear many different colors, including pink.

  因此,人们总是给女婴穿戴粉红色,给男婴穿戴蓝色。但是,一律都这样办可就危险了,因为人的品味是会变化的。例如,几年前职场中人只穿白衬衫,可是如今他们却穿着五颜六色的衬衫,甚至还穿粉色衬衫。

  短语:as a result(of)结果

  For example:As a result of the accident, he had been in hospital for three years. 由于那次事故,他住了三年医院。

  dress sb(oneself) 给某人(自己)穿……;

  dress sb in  (color)给…穿…(什么颜色的衣服)。

  wear/put on:表示“穿”,通常强调的是行为动作

  If two objects are the same except for color, they will look different. Color can make an object look nearer or farther, larger or smaller. A red object always looks nearer than a blue object. For example, red letters on a blue sign look as though they are in front of the sign.

  如果两件东西除了颜色不同以外都相同,那么这两件东西看起来就不同。颜色能使物品看起来好像较近或较远,较大或较小。一件红色的东西看起来总是比一件蓝色的东西近一些。例如,一块蓝底招牌上的红字看起来就好像红字是在招牌前面似的。

  except for;except

  as though 似乎、好像 = as if

  Bright objects look larger than dark objects. However, they are actually the same size. Large or fat people who want to look smaller or slimmer wear dark clothes. When they wear dark clothes, they look smaller and slimmer than they are.

  颜色鲜艳的物品看上去就比色调发暗的物品好像大一些似的,但实际上他们的大小是一样的。大个子或肥胖的人,如果想让人看起来瘦小点儿、苗条点儿,就应穿暗色的衣服。如果这些大个子、胖人穿上黑衣服,那么他们看起来就要比他们实际瘦小一些、苗条一些。

  In conclusion, color is very important to people. Warm and cool colors affect how people feel. People choose products by color. Moreover, color affects how an object looks. It is even possible that your favorite color tells a lot about you.

  由此可以得出结论,颜色对人们是很重要的。暖色和冷色都会影响到人的感觉。人们是根据颜色挑选产品的,更重要的是,颜色影响到一个物体的外观,甚至可以根据你所喜欢的颜色了解到有关你本人的许多情况。

  In conclusion 综上所述、总之

  三、Vocabulary Exercises

  Choose the most proper words and expressions from the vocabulary list to complete the following sentences. The first letter is already given.

  1. I don't feel energetic enough. I must take some recreation to refresh myself.

  2. A sign with“Danger”on it is a caution.

  3. Henry Ford, the American motor - car manufacturer, was the first to make mass-production of cars possible.

  4. One cannot generalize from a few examples.

  5. He is very slim, being six feet tall and weighing only 130 pounds.

  6. The rooms looked like new after they had been decorated.

  7. Discipline was relaxed on the last day of school.

  8. If you give the old table two coats of paint, it won't show so badly.

  coat: 层

  9. The audience reacted warmly to his speech.

  10. They are a sociable family and entertain a great deal.

  要点概述:

  1.核心词汇

  assure;pursuit;commitment;maintain;approach;sociable;caution;react;generalize.

  2.核心短语

  to set aside;in pursuit of;to make commitment to;approach to;to keep(或 to bear)… in mind;remind of

  3.结构方面

  1.have(no)difficulty(in)doing:做某事有(没有)困难

  注意后面用的是动词的 ing 形式。

  2.see as = regard as 把…看作…、把…当成…。

  For example:Many children see their fathers as great men. 很多孩子视自己的父亲为伟人。

  3.suggest 后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气的情况一定要**:第一、suggest 是建议的意思;第二、后面跟宾语从句。

  虚拟语气中谓语是 should  动词原形或者是省略should直接用动词原形。

  4.本单元中复习了分词和定语从句在句子中做定语时的情况。


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发表于:2009-08-12 19:25:48

09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit23)

  Text A Non - verbal Communication

  一、New Words

  1.前缀单词

  1)non - verbal(a.) 非词语的,非语言的

  verbal 言语的,言词的;non 不……,非……。

  2)dislike(vt./n.) 不喜爱,厌恶

  2.后缀单词

  1)listener(n.) 听者,收听者

  writer(n.) 作者、作家

  manager(n.) 1.经理;2.管理人

  2)European(a.) 1.欧洲的;2.欧洲人的

  (n.) 欧洲人

  an 结尾表示“人”的单词:American,Italian

  3)approve(v.) 批准、通过、赞成

  approval(n.) 1.批准,通过;2.赞成,同意

  arrive/arrival 与以上两个词的构词方式一样。

  4)reaction(n.) 1.反应(力),反作用(力);2.反动,对抗

  5)appearance(n.) 1.出现,露面;2.外观,外表

  6)closeness(n.) 1.紧密;2.严密,精密

  7)tenseness(n.) 紧张;绷紧

  intense(a.) 强烈的、紧张的

  8)embarrassment(n.) 1.窘迫;2.使人为难的事

  9)culture(n.) 文化

  cultural(a.) 1.文化的;2.栽培的,培养的

  10)invasion(n.) 入侵,侵略

  invade(v.) 侵略、入侵

  11)nervous(a.) 1.神经系统的;2.神经紧张的

  nerve(n.) 神经

  12)casually(ad.) 1.偶然地,碰巧地;2.漫不经心地,随便地

  英文意思就是 “by chance”

  3.核心单词

  1)oral(a.) 口头的,口的

  For example:Oral English 英语口语

  2)frown(vi.) 1.皱眉;2.不满,用皱眉对…表示不满( at)

  For example:He is frowning at those words on the wall. 他对写在墙上的这些字直皱眉头。

  3)staff([复]staffs)(n.) 1.全体职工,全体人员;2.参谋部

  (vt.) 为…配备工作人员

  如果要表述某一个整体中的具体的某一个人,应该是“staff member”,某几个成员“staff members”。

  For example 1:The school's teaching staff is excellent. 这个学校的教职员工是非常出色的。

  For example 2:Five staff members went to discuss their working conditions with the manager. 有五位职工去和经理讨论他们的工作条件。

  4)appearance(n.) 1.出现,露面;2.外观,外表;

  →反义词:disappearance(失踪)

  appear(v.)

  →反义词:disappear(消失)

  For example:The lion's appearance in the village cause great panic. 这头狮子在这个村庄的出现导致了非常大的恐慌。

  5)control(vt./n.) 1.控制,支配;2.克制,抑制

  in control of 控制了……

  out of control 脱离了控制,意思是已经不受控制了,也可以用 beyond control

  under control 处于控制之下

  6)false(a.) 1.假的,伪造的;2.不真实的,错误的;

  反义词:true

  wrong(错的)←→ right(正确的)但是这两个词没有真假的意思。

  7)confess(vt./vi.) 1.承认;2.坦白,供认

  4.Phrases and Expressions

  1)for short 简称,缩写

  For example:We are talking about National Basketball Association, NBA for short. 我们正在谈论国家篮球协会,缩写是 NBA.

  2)to fiddle with 1.摆弄,玩弄;2.弄虚作假

  For example:As a accountant you should not fiddle with accounts. 作为一名财会人员,你不应当篡改账目。

  3)to lack in 在…方面缺乏

  For example:The young always lack in experience. 年轻人经常是缺乏经验。

  4)and so on/and so forth/etc 等等

  For example:My mother bought many vegetables from the market such as potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages, and so on. 我妈妈在市场上买了很多蔬菜,比如土豆、西红柿、卷心菜等等。

  5)So far 迄今为止,就此范围(或程度等)来说

  So far 相当于 by now

  For example:She is the hardest student I have seen so far. 到目前为止,她是我所见到的最用功的学生。

  6)In fact 实际上

  7)As the saying goes 正如俗语所说

  For example:As the saying goes don't try to run before you can walk. 正像俗话所说的,在你学会走路之前不要想着去跑。(你还没有具备那样的能力,就不要硬逞能。)

  8)To speak volumes 含义很深,很有意义

  For example:What the speaker said at the end of the lecture speaks volumes. 那个演讲人在他演讲的最后所说的话非常地富有含义。

  二、Text A

  Non - verbal Communication(非语言文字的交流)

  If anyone asked you what were the main means of communication between people, what would you say? That isn't a catch question.

  译:假如现在有个人问你,什么是人与人之间的主要交流手段,那么你会说什么?这并不是一个能把人难住了的问题。

  1.catch 做动词表示“抓住、赶上”,在这儿 catch 是一个名词,意思是 hard to answer,“难以回答的”。

  The answer is simple and obvious. It would almost certainly refer to means of communication that involve the use of words.

  译:答案简单而又明确。几乎可以肯定,它指的就是用语言文字作为交流手段。

  2.refer to:指的是。

  Speakers and listeners - oral communication, and writers and readers - written communication. And you'd be quite right. There is, however, another form of communication which we all use most of the time, usually without knowing it. This is sometimes called body language. Its more technical name is non - verbal communication. Non - verbal, because it does not involve the use of words. NVC for short.

  译:讲话的人和听讲的人用口语进行交流,而作家与读者用书面文字进行交流。对了,你答得相当正确。但是,还有一种交流方式是我们大家在不知不觉的大部分时间都在使用的,我们有时称它为身体语言。身体语言的更加专业化的名称就是非语言交流。之所以称为非语言文字的,就是因为这种交流是不用语言文字进行的。缩写是NVC.

  When someone is saying something with which he agrees, the average European will smile and nod approval. On the other hand, if you disagree with what they are saying, you may frown and shake your head. In this way you signal your reactions, and communicate them to the speaker without saying a word.

  译:当某人谈了某件事,大多数的欧洲人若是同意他所说的事,就会微笑并点头表示同意。相反,若是这个欧洲人不同意他们所说的事,那么就可能皱眉并摇摇头。用这种方式你表示了对他们所说的事情的反应,你一句话也没说就把你的反应传达给了跟你讲话的人。

  3.average(n./a.) 这里做名词,意思是一般的。

  4.signal n.信号;v.用信号通知、用信号传达、用动作示意。

  For example:He signaled me to sit down. 他示意我坐下来。

  I referred a moment ago to “the average European”, because body language is very much tied to culture, and in order not to misunderstand, or not to be misunderstood, you must realize this. A smiling Chinese, for instance, may not be approving but somewhat embarrassed.

  译:我刚才提到的是“绝大多数欧洲人”,因为身体语言与文化习俗有很大的联系。为了不致误解别人或为了不被别人误解,你必须意识到这一点。例如,一位华人在微笑时很可能并不表示同意,而是有点不好意思。

  5.tie——n.领带;v.系、关联;常用短语:be tied to = be connected with 和……有关联、和……有关系。

  Quite a lot of work is now being done on the subject of NVC, which is obviously important, for instance, to managers, who have to deal every day with their staff, and have to understand what other people are feeling if they are to create good working conditions.

  译:关于“非语言文字的交流”这一课题我们现在正进行相当大量的研究。这一研究课题,比如对于经理、总管之类的人员来讲,很显然是重要的。经理人员每天都必须同员工们打交道,他们必须明白,如果能创造出一个良好的工作环境,那么别人都会有什么感觉。

  6.be being  动词过去分词:现在进行时的被动结构。

  7.deal with  sth 意思是“处理……事情”;

  deal with  sb 意思是“跟某人打交道”。

  be to do 表示已经计划好了,已经决定将要做什么事情。

  Body language, or NVC signals, are sometimes categorised into five kinds: 1. body and facial gestures; 2. eye contact; 3. Body contact or “proximity”; 4. clothing and physical appearance; and 5. the quality of speech. I expect you understood all those, except perhaps “proximity.” This simply means “closeness”。

  译:有时可以把身体语言,或者叫非语言文字的交流,分成五大类:(1)身体的姿态和面部表情;(2)目光的接触;(3)身体的接触或者“亲近度”;(4)衣着打扮和天生的长相;(5)讲话的质量。我想,也许除了“亲近度”而外,这一切你都明白。它就是讲“亲近到什么程度”。

  In some cultures - and I am sure this is a cultural feature and not an individual one - it is quite normal for people to stand close together, or to more or less thrust their face into yours when they are talking to you. In other cultures, this is disliked; Americans, for instance, talk about invasion of their space.

  译:在某些文化习俗当中——我敢肯定这是某一民族的风俗文化的特征,而不是某一个人的习惯特征——当人们在跟你谈话时,跟你站得很近或者或多或少地把脸贴近了你的脸,这都是十分正常的。而在另外一些民族的文化习俗当中,这样做是人们所不喜欢的。例如,美国人认为你侵犯了他们的私人空间。

  8.more or less 或多或少;

  Some signals are probably common to all of us. If a public speaker (like a professor, for example)is all the time fiddling with a pencil, or with his glasses, while he is talking to you, he is telling you quite clearly that he is nervous. A person who holds a hand over his mouth when he is talking is signaling that he is lacking in confidence. If you start wriggling in your chairs, looking secretly at your watches or yawning behind your hands, I shall soon get the message that I'm boring you. And so on. I'm sure you could make a whole list of such signals - and it might be fun if you did.

  译:也许有些信号是我们大家所共有的。如果一位演讲者(比如一位教授),在给你们作报告时,总是摆弄一支铅笔或者他的眼镜,那么,他这是很清楚地告诉你,他心情很紧张。一个人如果在谈话时总是用一只手捂着嘴,这就表明他缺乏自信。如果你们开始不能安稳地坐在椅子上,开始偷偷地不时看看钟表,或者你们开始用手捂住嘴打哈欠,那么,我将会马上得到一个信息,那就是我使你们感到厌倦了。如此等等。我敢肯定你们会把这类感到厌倦的信号列出一整张纸来——如果你们现在就写的话,可能会很有趣。

  9.make a list(of)罗列(罗列什么东西);list 自身可以做动词“罗列”

  For example:Make a list of the books.

  it might be fun if you did 是与现在相反的虚拟语气

  All the signals I have mentioned so far can be controlled. If you are aware that you are doing these things, you can stop. You can even learn to give false signals. Most public speakers are in fact nervous, but a good speaker learns to hide this by giving off signals of confidence.

  译:我上面所提到的这些信号都是人们可以控制的。如果你意识到了你正在做那些小动作,你就会停止不做了。甚至你们还能学会发出虚假的信号。事实上绝大多数公开发表演讲的人都心情紧张,但是一位擅长演讲的人会发出自信心很强的信号来掩饰紧张的心情。

  10.mention = speak of 表示提及到的、说到的、说过的;

  so far 到目前为止;

  be aware that 意识到、知道;

  in fact 事实上,实际上;

  11.by giving off 通过发出(虚假信号)。

  Other kinds of NVC are not so easy to control. Eye contact, for instance. Unless you are confessing intense love, you hardly ever look into someone else's eyes for very long. If you try it, you'll find they will soon look away, probably in embarrassment.

  译:另外几种非语言文字的交流就不是很容易控制的了。比如说目光接触吧。除非你坦白承认你深深爱上了她,要不然的话你就不会长时间地凝视着她的眼睛。如果你将来试一试凝视她的眼睛,你就会发现她会扭转头把眼睛挪开看其它地方,也许是出于难为情吧。

  I've already mentioned proximity, so just a brief word now about our last two categories, which concern the way people dress and the way they speak. These are both pretty obvious signals. People may dress casually and speak casually, which signals that they are relaxed. Or they can dress formally and speak formally, showing their tenseness. In fact, non-verbal communication can, as the saying goes, speak volumes.

  译:我上面已经把“亲近度”解释过了。现在用简明扼要的话讲讲最后两大类语言文字交流信号。这两类涉及到人们穿着的方式和讲话的方式。这两类都是很明显的交流信号。穿着随随便便而讲话又漫不经心,说明这些人的心情很轻松。如果人们穿得整整齐齐,讲起话来一本正经,这表明他们的心情很紧张很不轻松。事实上,非语言文字的交流,正如俗话所说的那样,含义是很深的。

  12.pretty(a.)意思是 beautiful;在文中是副词,意思是 quite、very 非常、十分。

  三、Vocabulary Exercises

  Ⅰ。For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper forms of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.

  1. embarrass(v.) 窘迫、为难

  embarrassing(a.) 使……为难;使……窘迫;通常修饰没有动作执行能力的事物。

  embarrassed(a.) 为难的,感到很为难的,通常做表语或者定语,修饰有动作执行能力的人。

  embarrassment(n.) 窘迫

  a. I often feel embarrassed in the presence of strangers.

  b. The little girl raised a rather embarrassing question.

  c. You can't imagine my embarrassment at having forgotten her name.

  d. The modern child embarrasses less easily than 50 years ago.

  2. close(a.) close(v.) closeness(n.) closed(a.)

  a. She made a close study of the relationship between culture and language.

  b. The bank has decided to close its New York branch.

  c. A sphere is a closed surface of figure.

  d. In some countries more eye contact implies more closeness of relationship.

  3. approve(v.) approval(n.) disapprove(v.) disapproval(n.)

  a. We all like others to show approval of what we do.

  b. He shook his head in disapproval.

  c. The government has approved the financial program for the coming year.

  d. I strongly disapprove of your program.

  4. appearance disappear appear disappearance

  a. The appearance of the old gray house made us think that it was empty.

  b. The advertisement didn't appear in yesterday's New York Times.

  c. The disappearance of the airplane brought about a search of the area.

  d. The truck disappeared into the night.

  5. tense(v.) 拉紧,使紧张;

  (a.)紧张的,绷紧的。

  intense(a.) 热烈的,强烈的,一般表示程度,有的时候也可以表示紧张的

  tenseness(n.) 绷紧、紧张

  intensity(n.) 思想或感情上的强烈、剧烈、激烈

  a. A bad burn causes intense pain.

  b. The heat continues with increased intensity.

  c. His muscles tensed when he heard the bad news.

  d. One must learn to hide one's tenseness when speaking in public.

  Ⅱ。 Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.

  non-verbal   staff   approval   appearance

  dislike     confess  control    brief

  casually    oral

  1. The boy confessed that he had broken the vase.

  2. The plane suddenly went out of control.

  3. The old man dislikes his wife although they have been married for thirty years.

  4. The young lady is making her first appearance at the party.

  5. The headmaster and his staff should all speak at the meeting.

  6. Do you know how to practice oral English?

  7. The professor made a brief introduction to his research.

  8. Art, like gesture, is a form of non-verbal expression.

  9. The father expressed his approval of what the son did.

  10. He only casually put in a remark when we talked about the matter.

  Text B Body Talk

  一、New Words

  1.前缀单词

  1)interaction(n.)相互作用,相互影响

  2)subconsciously(ad.)下意识地,潜意识地

  3)submissiveness(n.)服从,顺从

  2.后缀单词

  1)liking(n.)喜欢,爱好

  2)considerable(a.)1.值得考虑的,重要的;2.相当大或多的

  3)provocative(a.)1.挑衅的,**的;2.引起争论(或议论,兴趣等)的

  4)repeatedly(ad.)反复地

  5)hostile(a.)1.敌对的;2.不友善的,敌意的

  hostility(n.)敌意,敌视

  6)insistently(ad.)坚持地

  7)directness(n.)1.直接;2.直截了当,直率

  8)sincerity(n.)真诚

  sincere(a.)真诚的

  1)friendliness(n.)友好

  2)warmth(n.)1.暖和,温暖;2.热烈,热情

  3)emotion(n.)1.激动;2.情感,情绪

  emotional(a.)感情的,情感的,感情上的

  4)satisfying(a.)令人满意的,使人**的

  For example:a satisfying speech. 一个令人满意的演讲。

  satisfied(a.)(人的感受上的)满意、**

  For example:My father is satisfied with my study. 我的父亲对我的学业比较满意。

  5)lover(n.)1.情人;2.爱好者

  For example: book lover 爱书的人

  6)fascinating(a.)迷人的,**夺魄的

  3.核心单词

  1)considerable(a.)1.值得考虑的,重要的;2.相当大或多的

  2)consider(vt.)1.考虑,细想;2.认为,把…看作

  (vi.)考虑,细想

  3)bare(a.)1.赤裸的,光秃的;2.无遮蔽的,无掩护的;3.仅仅的,勉强的

  4.Phrases and Expressions

  1)to take a liking to(for)爱好,喜欢

  For example:He has a great liking for Chinese green tea. 他特别爱喝中国的绿茶。

  2)to worry about 焦虑,不安,烦恼

  For example:He has been out of home for three months, so his mother worries about his safety very much. 他已经离家三个多月了,他的母亲非常担心他的安全。

  3)apart from 除去,撇开,除…之外

  For example:Apart from the cost of living his university life is quite good. 除了生活费用,他的大学生活还是过得相当不错的。

  4)to complain of/about 抱怨,发牢骚,诉苦

  For example:Don't always complain of the others. 不要总是抱怨其他人。

  5)to let alone 1.不管,不弄;2.更不用

  For example:When a child is crying you should let it alone or he will cry more loudly. 当一个孩子哭的时候,你不要理他,否则他会哭得更大声。

  6)at times 有时候 = sometimes

  7)to take note of 注意,留意

  For example:When you make experiments in the laboratory, you should take note of the changes.当你在实验室做实验的时候,你应当注意所发生的变化。

  二、Text B

  Body Talk(身体语言)

  Have you ever wondered why you sometimes take an almost immediate liking to a person you have just met? Or worried about why someone you were talking to suddenly became cool and distant? The chances are that it wasn't anything that was said but something that happened: a gesture, a movement, a smile.

  你有没有想过为什么有时你刚刚见到了一个人,就会立刻喜欢上这个人?或者你有没有因为一位正在跟你谈话的人突然态度变得很冷而又疏远,这使你心情感到焦虑不安?这很可能并不是因为你说错了什么话,而是因为你的一个手势、一个小动作、一个微笑引起的。

  take a liking to 喜欢

  1.The chances are that … 可能性

  Social scientists are now devoting considerable attention to “non-verbal communication,” what happens when people get together, apart from their actual conversation.

  社会科学家们现在特别注意“非语言文字的交流”,即当人们在一起时,除了人们实际上所谈的话而外所发生的事情。

  2.devote … to 投身于……,献身于……

  what 引导同位语从句,做 non - verbal communication 的同位语

  Professor Erving Goffman of the University of Pennsylvania is involved in a continuing study of the way people behave in social interaction. He feels that gestures, movements and physical closeness have meaning which the words that the people are using do not carry.

  宾夕法尼亚州立大学欧文·高夫曼教授一直不断地在研究社会中人们行为的方式。他认为每个手势、每个动作和身体亲近的程度都有着人们的语言所表达不出来的意义。

  3.be involved in 涉及到,投身于,牵扯进去

  The closeness of two people when talking, movement towards and away from each other, and the amount of eye contact all reveal something about the nature of the relationship between the two individuals. We tend to be only subconsciously aware, if at all, of the various patterns and rituals of social behavior. We expect other people to act according to the same “rules” that we do, so much so that the manners and behavior of persons from another culture can be extremely confusing.

  交谈着的两个人的亲密程度,动作上的互相接近或疏远以及两个人目光接触的次数及接触时间的长短,所有这一切都能表明两人之间是哪一种关系。一般我们对社会行为的种种规范和礼仪,即使知道该怎么做,也常常是通过下意识才意识到的。我们期待着其他民族也按着我们做事的同样的“规矩”办事,以致于来自其他民族文化的人们的待人处事的态度和行为举止可能会令我们感到极端地困惑和不理解。

  4.if at all 即使、假如

  “rules” that we do 中 do 表示遵守

  5.so much so that 表示结果

  Fox example, North Americans tend to expect more physical distance between two speakers than do Latin Americans. Consequently, when the Latin American seems to be leaning too close, the North American complains of “invasion of his space.” The Latin American, on the other hand, often considers the North American to be “cold” or “distant” because he keeps a greater distance between himself and the person he is speaking to.

  例如,北美洲的人和拉丁美洲的人比较起来,北美洲的人希望两个谈话人之间的距离稍大一点。因而,当拉丁美洲的人似乎把身子凑得离谈话对方很近的时候,北美洲的人就会抱怨说你“侵犯了他的私人空间”。相反,拉丁美洲的人经常认为北美洲的人待人都很“冷淡”或“疏远”,因为北美洲人自己总是跟谈话对方之间要保持较大的距离。

  Eye contact is one way of measuring the degree of closeness of relationship between two speakers, although there are cultural variations in the meaning of eye contact. In the Middle East, for example, it is considered extremely provocative for a woman to let a man catch her eye, let alone return his gaze. Social psychologist Michael Argyle observes that there is more eye contact between people who like each other than those who are indifferent or hostile towards each other.

  尽管在不同的民族文化中目光接触的意义有所不同,但目光接触是衡量两个谈话人之间关系亲密程度的一个标准。例如,在中东,如果一位妇女惹得一个男子的注目,就被认为是带有极端的**调情的性质,更不用说回眸再去凝视那个男人了。社会心理学家迈克·阿吉尔觉察两个互相喜欢对方的人看对方的次数和时间,要比两个互相冷漠甚至敌视的人互相看对方的次数和时间要多。

  6.catch one's eyes 引起某人的注意,文中是盯某人的眼睛

  7.be indifferent to 冷漠的

  be hostile to 敌对的、敌意的

  And the longer the length of the gaze, the more likely it is that the listener is more interested in the person who is speaking, than the actual topic of conversation. Frequently looking down can indicate submissiveness or embarrassment. Looking away repeatedly may express boredom or dislike. Women tend to engage in more eye contact than men, especially when talking to other women.

  听话的人若是凝视讲话的人的时间越长,越有可能是,听话的人对讲话的人本人的兴趣大于他所讲的真正的话题的兴趣。低头往下看通常都表示顺从或不好意思。反复地扭转头看别处可以表达厌烦或不喜欢。妇女比男人更喜欢用目光接触,特别是在和另外一些妇女谈话时更是这样。

  8.engage in 从事、进行某项活动

  But too steady eye contact can make one feel uneasy at times. Most people become uncomfortable under the intense gaze of a stare. One scientist suggests that perhaps one reason that man becomes tense under the force of a stare is in his biological ancestors:in apes, a stare signifies aggressiveness and hostility. The person who insistently fixes his eyes on our face is often more successful in arousing our dislike than impressing us with his directness and sincerity.

  但有时死死地盯着看人,会使人感到不安。被人家盯着看,这会使大多数人感到不舒服。某一位科学家说,人类受到使劲地盯视时会感到紧张,这其中的原因之一就在于人类的生物学的始祖身上:在类人猿中,瞪着眼睛盯着看,就意味着要侵犯和敌对。一个人若是用他的两只眼睛始终不停地直直地看着我们的脸,这样做不但不会给我们留下这个人很直率很真诚的印象,反而会引起我们的反感。

  Similarly, the smile cannot always be interpreted as a sign of friendliness. The person who smiles almost constantly and with little apparent reason makes us uneasy. Even though he may believe that he is expressing friendliness, he may really seem nervous and tense. In other animals, bared teeth are a warning gesture, a danger sign.

  同样道理,微笑也并不能总是解释为友好。如果一个人老是朝着我们微笑,又没有明显的理由,就会使我们感到不安。即使这个人自己认为他是在向你表示友好,很可能让人觉得那人很紧张很不自然。在其它动物中间,呲牙是警告的姿势,是一种危险的信号。

  Genuine warmth or interest can be revealed in the eyes, suggests Dr. Eckhard Hess of the University of Chicago, who believes that the pupils of the eyes can indicate emotion or interest. The opened pupil tends to be associated with pleasant, satisfying experiences. That special sparkle in the lover's eyes need not be fantasy, for love may make the pupil grow larger. Sometimes when we feel that a person is “warm” or “friendly”, it is possible we are reacting to a form of non-verbal communication - his opened pupils.

  真正的热情和兴趣可以从眼神当中表现出来,这是芝加哥埃克哈特· 赫斯博士提出来的。他认为眼睛的瞳孔可以表达感情和兴趣。瞳孔扩张一般总是与愉快的令人满意的经历有关。情人眼神中闪现出的神采不一定就是你的幻觉,因为爱情可以使瞳孔扩大。有时我们觉得某人“热情”、“友好”,这很可能是我们对他所用的非语言文字的交流做出了反应——他的瞳孔扩大了。

  9.pupil(n.)1.小学生;2.瞳孔。本文中是瞳孔的意思

  The next time you are at a party, take note of some of the silent messages being sent around you. Notice which persons seem to draw naturally together to speak, which others try to stay further apart or even avoid meeting each other's eyes. You may find that this silent language is much more fascinating than the actual conversation going on around you.

  下次你参加社交聚会时,多留意一下你周围的人所传送的无声的语言信息。注意一下,哪些人很自然地就聚在一起谈话,注意一下还有哪些人互相间尽量离得远些,甚至尽量避免接触对方的目光。你会发现这些无声的语言远远比你周围的人所实际进行的有声的交谈更能触动人们的心灵。

  三、Vocabulary Exercises

  Ⅰ。 Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.

  satisfying   considerable    consider   complain of

  tense      worry about     at times   take note of

  let alone    hostile

  1. Some conservatives have gone so far as to be hostile to any change.

  2. I left quietly and nobody took note of my leaving.

  3. The patient complained of headache caused by overwork.

  4. The sun was high in the sky, and the heat is considerable.

  5. At times I feel I want to give up smoking.

  6. In those hard times, we couldn't send our children to middle school, let alone college.

  7. Don't worry about us; we are old enough to take care of ourselves.

  8. I saw his face tense with pain.

  9. No student can give the teacher a satisfying answer.

  10. Red colour is generally considered to be active and exciting.

  要点概述:

  1.核心词汇

  embarrass、staff、control、considerable、consider、emotion、satisfying

  2.核心短语

  lack in;So far;worry about;apart from;let alone;take note of

  3.结构

  1)staff 作为集合名词的时候的用法:如果表示整体,注意 staff 后面不加“s”;如果表示个体,staff 后面要加“member”。

  2)pretty 做副词的时候意思是非常、相当、十分,可以修饰形容词;

  3)The chances are that 意思是很有可能……。


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发表于:2009-08-12 19:26:19

09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit24)

  Text A Saving the Rainforests for Future Generations

  Ⅰ.New words:

  带有前缀的单词:

  deforestation: v.& n. 开伐森林

  ecosystem: n. 生态系统

  ecospecies: 生态种

  overpopulate: v. 使人口过密

  population: n. 人口

  international: 国际的

  nation: n. 国家,民族

  inter- 表示“在一起, 交互”之义

  export: n. & vt. 输出,出口

  port: 港口

  import: 进口

  recycle: vt. 使再循环,使再生;n.再循环,再生

  economy n. 经济

  economic a. 经济(上)的

  economics n. 经济学

  economical a. 节约的

  consequence: n. 结果,后果

  consequent: a. 作为结果的

  massive: a. 大量的;大而重的,魁伟的

  mass: n. 群众,大量

  regional: a. 地区的

  region: n. 地区

  globe: n. 地球

  global: a. 全球的

  contribute: v. 贡献,捐献

  contribution: n. 贡献,捐献,投稿

  contributor: n. 捐助者,贡献者

  senseless: a. 无知觉的;无意义的,愚蠢的

  living: n. 生活,生计

  make one's living 谋生

  newly: ad. 新近,最近;重新,以新的方法

  合成词:

  rainforest: n. 热带雨林

  rainfall: n. (降)雨量;一场雨

  greenhouse: n. 温室

  forestland: n. 林地

  make-up: n. 组成,化妆

  课文中出现的重点单词:

  1.upset v. 弄翻,打翻;使苦恼

  过去式、过去分词:(upset-upset-upset )

  a. 不安的;不适的;不舒服的

  E.g.: The large wave upset the boat.

  He is upset because of the generation gap.

  2.contribute (vi./vt)

  E.g.: The Nobel Prize winner contributed much to the research in this field.

  contribute to: 有助于;捐献;起作用

  His carelessness contributed to the accident.

  3.derive v. 由…。得到(from);起源,由……派生(from)

  E.g.: He derived his love for table tennis from his father.

  Many English words derived from French.

  4.cancel v. 取消;删除

  E.g.: The decision of the court cancelled the contract.

  5.owe : vt. 欠(债等),应该向(某人)付出;应该把…归功于(to)

  E.g.: I owe a great deal to my family and my friends for their support.

  His success does not owe to luck but hard work.

  Phrases:

  1.speed up (使)加速

  E.g.: The heart speeds up.

  We should make double efforts to speed up socialist construction.

  2.threaten with 用…威胁,恐吓

  E.g.: The boss threatens the employees with dismissal.

  老板以开除来威胁员工。

  3.at the rate of 以…速度或比率

  He drives at the rate of 40 kilometers per hour.

  The population in this country is increasing at the rate of 1%.

  4.in the face of 在…面前,当着…的面;不顾

  face: n. 脸;正面 v. 面对

  E.g.: He was brave in the face of danger.

  5.stop…。from… 阻止…做…

  I can hardly stop myself from shouting at him.

  Having no money cannot stop them from falling in love.

  6.pay off 偿还;没有白费

  He plans to pay off the loan (贷款) in five years.

  7.solution to 解决…的方法

  8.last but not least 最后的但并非最不重要的

  Last but not least, we must find a peaceful solution to the problem.

  Ⅱ.Text A

  Saving the Rainforests for Future Generations: 拯救热带雨林,造福子孙万代

  Para1:

  Rainforests are being cut and burned from Brazil to Indonesia at such a rate that they could well disappear from the earth's surface before the year 2050.

  译:从巴西到印尼,热带雨林正在被砍伐,被烧毁,其速度非常之快,以致于到不了2050年,热带雨林就会被砍光烧光而从地球表面上彻底消失。

  They are being cleared for valuable timber and other resources to speed up the economic growth of the nations in which they are located.

  are being cleared: 现在进行时的被动语态

  译:为了获取贵重木材和其它资源,加速热带雨林地区的国家的经济发展,热带雨林正在逐渐被砍伐得干干净净。

  The most recent figures show that the area of rainforest destroyed last year alone was bigger than the size of Great Britain and Ireland.

  译:最近的统计数字表明,仅去年一年被毁掉的热带雨林的面积就比英国和爱尔兰两国的面积加起来还大。

  be+ being +V(p.p)

  clear v. 清除,扫除

  speed: 加快

  locate: v. (使)坐落于,位于

  Para.2

  If the present rate of deforestation is allowed to continue, the consequences for the earth will be great.

  译:如果听任目前采伐森林的速度继续发展下去,那么给整个地球所带来的后果将是十分严重的。

  We shall see a massive upsetting of ecosystems, very large increases in soil erosion, increases in flooding and in drought, changes in rainfall patterns and regional, quite possibly global, changes in climate. We shall also probably lose many rare plant and animal species.

  译:我们将会看到:生态系统失衡;土壤侵蚀现象大规模增加;水灾、旱灾大规模出现;降雨方式改变;地区气候改变,甚至可能导致全球气候的改变。我们也许会永远失去很多种珍稀的植物和动物。

  in: 在……方面

  contribute to : 促成,导致

  Para.3

  According to many scientists, the burning of rainforests is also directly contributing to the so-called greenhouse effect. This effect, they say, is raising average temperatures and sea levels as the polar ice caps recede.

  译:根据许多科学家报告,烧毁热带雨林也直接导致了所谓的温室效应。科学家们都说,这种温室效应正在使全球平均气温升高,正在使南极和北极地区的冰冠融化,随之而来的也正在使全球海洋的水平面上升。

  contribute to(to 介词): 有助于

  raise vt.

  rise vi.

  Para.4

  The rainforest is essential in other areas also. It is a medicine chest of unlimited potential. The US National Cancer Institute has identified 2,000 rainforest plants which could be beneficial in fighting cancer. In today's pharmaceutical market, 15 of the 125 drugs derived from plants were discovered in the rainforest.

  chest: 胸膛;箱。

  译:从其它方面来看,热带雨林对人类也是必不可缺的。热带雨林是一个有着无限潜力的医药资源宝库。美国国家癌症研究院已经证实了有2000种热带雨林中的植物对预防和治疗癌症有奇效。在今天的药品市场上,125种单味药中,就有15种是从热带雨林发现的植物中提取出来的。

  Plant species are not the only forms of life threatened with extinction in the rainforest. Rare birds and animals that cannot be found anywhere else in the world have been disappearing at the rate of one a year since the turn of the century.

  译:各种植物在热带雨林中并不是受到灭种威胁的唯一生物。世界上除了热带雨林以外,在其它任何地方都找不到的珍稀鸟类和珍稀动物,在这世纪之交正在以每年消失一种的速度逐渐灭绝。

  the turn of the century 世纪之交

  In the face of all these facts, it seems senseless for countries to continue destroying their rainforests.

  译:面对着这些事实,这些国家还在继续毁灭他们的热带雨林,简直令人觉得他们太麻木不仁了。

  Destroy v. 消灭,摧毁/damage v./n. 损害,伤害/ruin v./n. 毁灭

  However, the problem is not so simple. The countries in which the rainforests are located are all quite poor and overpopulated. One of them, Brazil, has a population of 140 million, about half of whom are living in absolute poverty.

  译:但是,这个问题并不简单。拥有热带雨林的那些国家都相当贫穷而且人口过剩。热带雨林国家之一,巴西,有一亿四千万人。其中约有半数人生活在绝对贫困当中。

  The governments in these countries are usually also too weak to stop large companies and powerful individuals from destroying the rainforests. They have no money, so when the poor whom they cannot feed find work cutting down trees or burning forestland, the governments often have no choice but to turn a blind eye.

  the +a.:表示一类人

  have no choice but to do: 没有办法,只能…

  译:这些国家的政府通常也都十分软弱,以致不能阻止一些大公司或有权有势的人毁坏热带雨林。那些国家的政府都没有钱,所以当政府养活不起的那些穷人,找到了砍树或在森林里烧树开荒的工作时,政府别无选择,只好睁一只眼闭一只眼。

  Moreover, for many of these countries, the valuable timber and other resources found in the rainforests are also a very important source of foreign exchange, which they badly need to pay off their foreign debts and purchase foreign equipment and other goods.

  foreign exchange: 外汇

  译:况且,对于这些国家中的有些国家来说,热带雨林中的珍贵木材和其它资源也是他们换取外汇的重要资源,以便用来偿还外债和购买外国设备以及其它物资。

  The only solution to the problem, then, seems to be for the richer countries of the world to help the countries where the rainforests are located. One way they could help would be by cancelling the international debts that countries like Brazil owe, while also working together with these countries to solve their other economic problems.

  译:那么,这个问题唯一的解决办法似乎就是世界上较富裕国家应该援助那些地处热带雨林地区的国家。援助的方法之一就是放弃或取消像巴西这类国家所欠他们的国际债务,同时还要同这些国家一起协作去解决他们的一些经济问题。

  At the same time, they could support programmes to teach the local people to regard the rainforests as gardens to be harvested, and not merely as places where the only way for them to make a living is by senselessly cutting down trees and burning.

  译:与此同时,他们还应该举办各种培训班,教会当地居民把热带雨林看成是获得大丰收的花园、果园、菜园、动植物园,而不要只把热带雨林看成是只能用愚昧无知的砍树烧树办法来谋生的地方。

  regard …as …:把…当成

  see …as

  Such programmes could teach the local people how to select trees worth exporting and to cut only those trees down while leaving the rest, so that the basic make-up of the forest would not be disturbed.

  be worth doing sth.: 值得…。

  译:这类培训班还可以教会当地居民如何精选出值得出口的树木,只把有出口价值的树木砍掉,而把其余的树都保留下来,以保证森林中基本的生态平衡不被破坏。

  This would also mean that the environment needed for the survival of the many rare species of animals and plants, as well as of the Indian tribes that live in the rainforest, could be preserved.

  preserve:保护,存留

  译:这样做,也将意味着会把许多珍稀植物和动物赖以生存的环境以及热带雨林中的印地安各部落赖以生存的环境保存下来。

  The local people could also be taught to earn more money by cutting the selected trees and making them into furniture on the spot.

  select v. 选择 a.精选的

  selection n. 选择

  selective: a. 选择的,选择性的

  In addition, they could learn how to harvest other valuable natural materials that are now being wasted, and sell them overseas to earn foreign exchange for their countries.

  还可以教会当地居民通过采伐精选的树木并用这些树木在当地加工成家具的办法去赚到更多的钱。此外,当地居民在培训班还可以学会怎样去采集现在被浪费掉的其它珍贵天然材料,然后把这些材料卖到国外去,以便为他们的祖国赚回外汇。

  Last but not least, people in the richer countries of the world could also help save the rainforests by using wood-derived products such as paper more carefully and by recycling used paper products to help reduce the demand for newly cut wood.

  译:最后,同样重要的是,世界上较富裕国家的人民,要更加注意节约使用以木材为原料的纸张之类的产品,回收利用纸制产品,以帮助减少新的砍伐树木的需求量,从而帮助拯救热带雨林。

  Ⅲ.Vocabulary Exercises :

  ⅰ.Choose the proper words given at the beginning.

  1.economy economic economical

  a.The war is a fatal blow to the economy of both countries.

  b.It is important to bring about a new economic order in the world.

  c.The newly invented machine is economical of time and energy.

  2.consequence consequent consequently

  a.The farmers suffered a drought and there was a consequent shortage of food in the market.

  b.If you behave so foolishly, you must be ready to take the consequence.

  c.She was a bright and eager student and, consequently, did well in school.

  3.contribute contribution contributor

  a.His involvement contributed effectively to the solution of the dispute.

  b.All contributors to the church will have a meeting today.

  c.The young policeman made a remarkable contribution to public safety.

  4.overpopulate population populate

  a.If we didn't carry out family planning, our country would be much more overpopulated.

  b. The centre of the city is a densely populated area.

  c. The country is adopting radical measures to control the growth of its population.

  ⅱ.Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.

  local massive upset senseless recede threaten export recycle select pay off

  1.Empty bottles are recycled in order for the glass to be used.

  2.The news that he failed the final exam upset him emotionally.

  3.Tea, grain and sugar are among the most important exports.

  4.The doctors made massive efforts to save the dying patient.

  5.Columbus' idea of going east by sailing west was thought to be senseless by the Spanish nobles.

  6.The coast was receding / receded slowly as our ship sailed out to sea.

  7.Many rare species of animals are being threatened with extinction.

  8.It's almost certain that our plan will pay off; it is a wonderful idea.

  9.“When in Rome, do as the Romans do” means that one should behave according to the local customs.

  10.Why didn't you select a better topic for your conversation?

  Text B Life on the Tundra

  Ⅰ.New words:

  1.含有前缀的单词:

  subsoil n. 下层土,底土

  2.含有后缀的单词:

  marshy a.沼泽般的,湿软的

  →marsh n.沼泽

  →表示地形的单词:maintain/sea /desert /plain /plateau

  continous a. 连续不断的,不停歇的,表示动作或物体不间断地进行下去

  eg: They chattered continuously for an hour. 他们不间断地聊了一个小时。

  continual a. 连续的,频繁的,表示多次重复的动作(有可能有间断)

  eg: Please stop your continual questions. 请不要再接二连三的提问题了。

  permanently ad. 长久地,永久地

  →permanent (a.) 反义词:temporary a. 暂时的

  lifeless a. 1.无生命的,死的;2.没有生气的,单调的

  disturbance n. 1.骚动,动乱;2.打扰,干扰

  deep a. 深的

  depth n. 1.深度2.深处[常pl.] 3.深奥,深刻

  seemingly ad. 1.表面地 2.近乎真实地

  shortage n. 不足,缺少

  explorer n. 探索者,考察者

  3.合成词:

  daylight : 1.日光 2.日间

  pipeline : 管道,管线

  4.特殊记忆:

  minor 比较小的;少数的 ←→ major 比较大的;多数的

  1)这两个词本身就有比较意味,用比较级时不需要变形加er

  2)在用比较级的句子中,不用比较连词than,而用介词to

  bay海湾 / port 海港 / coast 海岸,海滨/ gulf 海湾

  5.本单元课文中出现的单词:

  1.horizon n. 1.地平线;2.(喻)眼界,见识

  E.g.: the horizon 地平线

  Travel broadens one's horizons. 旅游可以开阔人的眼界。

  2.continuous & continual

  E.g.: They chattered continuously for an hour. 他们足足聊了1个小时。

  Please stop your continual questions. 请不要再接二连三地提问题了。

  3.hunt vt. 1.追猎,猎取;2.追赶,搜索

  vi.(for)1.打猎;2.猎食;3.搜寻

  n.打猎

  E.g.: go hunting 去打猎

  He's been hunting for a lost book. 他一直在找那本丢失的书。

  Phrases:

  1.be known as 以…而闻名,通常名叫

  E.g.: Mark Twain was known as a great novelist. 马克· 吐温作为一个伟大的小说家被人们熟知。

  →be known for 因为…而出名

  2.in search of 寻找…,寻求…

  Eg: Scientists are in search of a cure for the disease. 科学家正在想治疗这种疾病的方法。

  3.to …degree 达到…程度

  to some degree 达到一定的程度

  to what degree 达到什么程度

  to a high/low degree 达到很高/低的程度

  to such an degree 达到如此…的程度

  to a certain degree 达到一定的程度

  E.g. He is vain to a high degree. 他非常爱虚荣。

  4.to some extent 在某种程度上

  E.g.: To some extent you are correct . 从某种程度上说你是正确的。

  I agree with you to a certain extent. 我在一定程度上同意你的意见。

  5.prevent … from 防止,阻止

  E.g.: Put on more clothes to prevent yourself from getting a cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒。

  6.in turn 1.依次,轮流;2.反过来

  by turns 轮流,交替

  1)please speak in turn. 请依次发言。

  2)Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 理论以实践为基础,反过来又为实践服务。

  3)The couple wash dishes by turns. 夫妻俩轮流洗碗

  7.result in = bring about 导致,产生

  E.g.: Our efforts resulted in success. 我们的努力终于导致了成功

  →result from 因为…。发生,产生

  E.g.: His injury resulted from a fall. 他因摔倒而受伤。

  Ⅱ.Text B

  Life on the Tundra

  冻土带上的生活情景

  Tundra is the name given to the low, marshy plains of Europe, Siberia, and North America that border on the Arctic Ocean.

  译:欧洲、西伯利亚和北美洲接近北冰洋的低洼沼泽平原称为冻土带。

  1.border on 与…相邻

  In Alaska, the vast, cold region known as the “Northern Slope” is part of the tundra. Nature sets harsh terms for survival in this land. Only those plants and animals that are adapted to the hostile environment can survive in it.

  2.be know as

  terms 条件(如果去掉s则没有条件的意思,表示“学期;术语”)

  3.adapt to 适应…

  译:美国阿拉斯加州,那块广阔寒冷通称为“北边坡地”的地区就是冻土带的一部分。大自然为这片土地设置的生存条件十分恶劣。只有那些能适应在逆境中生存的植物和动物才能在这种环境中生存下来。

  Long periods of darkness and bitter cold are the major threats to life on the tundra. At the Arctic Circle, the sun cannot be seen above the horizon in December. North of the Circle, the darkness lasts even longer. Over the northern reaches of the tundra, no sunlight can be seen at all for several months of the year.

  bitter 在这里表示“刺骨的”

  4.over : beyond在…以外

  5.no … at all: not … at all 一点也不,根本不

  eg. You don't look old at all. 你看起来一点也不老。

  译:长期的黑暗和刺骨的严寒是在冻土带上生活的两大最主要的威胁。北极圈在12月份,地平线上是看不到太阳的。从北极圈往北黑暗的时间通常会持续得更长些。在冻土带北部边缘以外的地方,一年中有好几个月根本见不到阳光。

  The darkness is balanced, to some degree, by continuous daylight during the summer months.

  译:持续的黑暗,从某种意义上来说,同夏季几个月连续不断的白昼达到了平衡。

  6.Balance n. 平衡

  v. 使…平衡,使…均衡

  But even in the warmest month, the temperature only averages about 50 degree F (10 degrees C)。

  F(fahrenheit) C(centigrade)

  Boiling point 212° 100°

  Freezing point 32° 0°

  Absolute-zero -459.67° -273.15°

  换算公式:

  摄氏度数=(华氏度度数-32)×5/9

  华氏度数=摄氏度度数×9/5 +32

  译:但即使是在最暖和的月份里,平均温度刚刚能达到华氏50度(10摄氏度)。

  During the dark winter months the average temperature falls to -16 degrees F ( -27 degrees C), and sometimes to -40 degrees (C and F) and below.

  译:在冬季那几个黑暗的月份里,平均气温降到华氏负16度,有时达零下40度甚至更低。

  Because of the intense cold, the subsoil of the tundra remains permanently frozen to a great depth. During the brief summer, a few feet (about a meter) of soil thaw at the surface. It is this thin layer of active soil that supports all living things on the tundra.

  译:由于酷寒,冻土带的下层土都冻得很深。在短暂的夏季仅三英尺的表层土壤能解冻。正是这被太阳晒暖的苏醒过来的薄薄的一层土壤养活着冻土带上的一切生物。

  For nine months of the year, the tundra is a dark, seemingly lifeless wild land. Then in June, as if by magic, a never-setting summer sun gives birth to hundreds of species of arctic plants to cover the ground.

  7.give birth to (prep.) 产生…,生产出…

  译:每年长达9个月,冻土带都是一块看上去毫无生机的荒凉的土地。然后到6月份,好像是施了魔法一样,一轮永不落的夏天的太阳生出了数百种北极的植物覆盖着大地。

  A plant that grows more than three feet (about a meter) is unusual on the tundra. There are no tall trees. The frozen subsoil prevents roots from growing deep enough to support them. By the end of August the breath of winter returns, and by mid-September the tundra is white again.

  译:一种植物若能长得超过了三英尺,这在冻土带上就是很不平常的了。冻土带上根本就不会有高大的树木。深层的永冻土使植物的根不能深深地扎下去来支撑高大的树木。到8月底,冬天的气息又返回来了, 9月中旬这冻土带又是冬天了。

  The animal life on the tundra is unusually rich for an environment that seems so harsh. Herds of arctic deer move from place to place in search of food. Bands of wolves follow them and hunt for the weak or sick ones.

  rich adj.富的, 有钱的, 富有的, 富饶的, 肥沃的, 充足的, 丰富的

  表示数量的词:

  herds of deer 一群群的鹿

  bands of wolves 一群群的狼

  a group/crowd of people 一群人

  a herd of cattle 一群牛

  a flock of birds 一群鸟

  a nest of ants 一群蚂蚁

  译:在这种非常恶劣的环境中,冻土带上动物的生活却非常充实。一群一群的北极鹿到处迁徙以便寻找食物。一帮一帮的北极狼跟踪着北极鹿群以便猎吃鹿群中的老弱病残者。

  Few birds actually live on the tundra. However, a variety of birds migrate to nest and feed during the summer. The wet, marshy land produces a large number of insects that provide food for the smaller birds that, in turn, provide food for the arctic fox and the wolf.

  8.a variety of : various of : 多种多样的

  译:实际上几乎没有鸟类生活在冻土带上。但是各种各样的候鸟到了夏季会到这里来筑巢繁衍生息。这湿润的沼泽地能生出大量的昆虫,这就给小鸟提供了食物。接下来这些小鸟又充作了北极狐和北极狼的食物。

  The balance of nature is so delicate on the tundra that even minor disturbances may produce major changes in the environment.

  译:自然界的平衡在冻土带上是非常灵敏的,只要稍微有一点破坏平衡的现象出现就可能产生环境上的一些重大变化。

  Any increase or decrease in the population of one species may affect all other species on the tundra. For example, if the number of wolves and foxes decrease, the food chain is upset.

  译译:任何一个物种在数量上的增加或减少都会影响到冻土带上所有的其它物种。例如,如果北极狼和北极狐的数量减少,那食物链就会遭到破坏,就会脱节。

  Without wolves, the number of grazing animals - like the deer - would increase. This increase would result in a food shortage, which would cause death to many smaller animals. A decrease in the number of these smaller animals would in turn decrease the food supply for the arctic fox and the wolf. In this way, the entire food chain might be affected by a change in the number of a single species.

  译:倘若没有了北极狼,那些食草兽——像驯鹿之类——就会增加,这一增加就会导致食物短缺,很多小动物就会死亡。倘若这些小动物数量减少了,接下来就会减少了供应给北极狐和北极狼的食物。这样下来,由于某一物种的数量的改变,就有可能影响到整个食物链的脱节。

  Until recently, the changing seasons on the tundra were seen only by a few Eskimo hunters and explorers. What would draw men and women to live in such a hostile land? The answer is oil.

  译:不久前,只有极少数的爱斯基摩的猎手和探险家才能深究到冻土带上的寒来暑往,冬去春来。那么,是什么东西把男男女女都吸引到这块环境十分恶劣的土地上来的呢?答案就是:石油。

  9.draw (v.): attract 吸引

  In 1968, oil was discovered beneath the frozen soil on Alaska's Northern Slope. Now an 800-mile (about 1300 kilometers) pipeline has been built from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean to Valdes, a port on the south coast of Alaska.

  译:1968年在阿拉斯加北边坡地的冻土下面发现了石油。现在已经把一条800英里长的输油管从北冰洋上的普拉德霍湾架设到了阿拉斯加南岸的港口城市瓦尔迪兹。

  The pipeline carries the oil from the Northern Slope, across the tundra, to the port. From there, it is shipped to the rest of the United States.

  译:这条输油管把石油从北部坡地,越过冻土带,输送到瓦尔迪兹港口,又从那里把石油装船运送到美国其它地方。

  10.ship (v.) 运送,输送

  Thousands of men and women were needed to build and maintain the pipeline. For the first time, large numbers of people were brought into contact with the tundra.

  译:为了修建和维护这条输油管,成千上万的男女需要参与工作。这是破天荒第一次,把一大批又一大批的人送到这里来与冻土带打交道。

  Their presence and the presence of the pipeline they built represented a major change in the environment. How will the life cycles of the tundra be affected?

  译:这些人的到来以及他们所修建的输油管的出现标志着冻土带的环境的重大改变。那么,冻土带的生活周期会受到什么影响呢?

  The survival of the United States depends on the ability to find new sources of energy. Oil from beneath the tundra is very important to the nations' development. But the survival of the tundra depends on how carefully people maintain the delicate balance of nature in this environment.

  译:美国能否继续生存下去,依赖于是否有能力找到新的能源。来自冻土带下面的石油对美国的发展至关重要。但是,这块冻土带上的一切是否能继续维持下去,依赖于人们是否能细心地维护这种环境下大自然里各个物种之间的平衡。


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发表于:2009-08-12 19:28:06

09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit25)

  Text A American Men Don't Cry

  Ⅰ.New words

  1.带有前缀的单词:

  disapprove v. 不赞成(of)

  disapproval n.

  discourage vt. 1.使泄气,使沮丧;2.阻拦

  encourage v. 鼓舞,鼓励

  unable a. 不能的,不会的(to  v.)

  incapacity n. 无能力的,不能

  inability n. 无能,无能为力

  unnecessary adj. 不必要的, 多余的

  disequilibrate vt. 打破…的平衡

  restore vt. 使恢复,(使)回复

  2.带有后缀的单词:

  weakness n. 软弱;缺点 ←→ advantage/merit 优点,优势

  childishness n. 幼稚

  dependence n. 依靠

  permit v. 准许,允许

  permission n. 允许

  permissive a. 准许的,允许的

  stable a. 稳定的

  stability n. 稳定性,稳定;坚定,恒心

  intend v. 准备,打算

  intention n. 打算,计划

  confuse v. 混淆,混乱

  confusion n. 混乱,慌乱;混淆

  necessity n. 需要,必要性;必需品

  necessary a. 需要的

  interference n. 干涉,干预;妨碍

  maintenance n. 维持,保持;维修;坚持,维护

  animated a. 栩栩如生的;生气勃勃的

  lessen vt. 减轻,减少;缩小,贬低

  vi. 变少

  核心词汇:

  1.childlike 孩子般的,天真无邪

  eg: It is difficult for us to have the childlike enjoyment now. 现在对于我们来说,想要享受孩子般的欢乐实在是太难了。

  childish 幼稚的,傻里傻气的

  eg: Don't be so childish. 不要再这么孩子气了。

  2.disapprove of 不赞成…(但不一定表示反对)

  Eg: She wants to be an actress, but her parents disapprove of her intentions.

  The father disapproved of his daughter's marriage to the poor fellow.

  3.discourage 使泄气,使沮丧;

  阻拦 discourage …。 from…。

  Eg: Tom was discouraged with life when the beautiful girl refused his love.

  Parents should discourage their children from smoking.

  4.restore 使恢复,使回复

  ① 将(失物)归还原主

  Eg: Police restored the stolen jewels to the owner.

  ② 使某人/某物回复到原处或原位

  Eg: He restored his dictionary to the shelf.

  ③ 使某人/某物恢复原先的状况

  Eg:After the operation, he restored his sight. (视力)

  interfere in sth. 在某件事上打扰

  interfere with sb. 打扰了某人

  interference(n.)in/with sth.

  eg: Don't interfere in matters that don't concern you. 不要干预与你无关的事情。

  We can't understand his interference in/with the other's domestic (家庭的) matters.

  6.damage n.

  do /cause damage to 对某人或某物造成部分性的损伤。

  eg: The accident did/caused a lot of damage to the car.

  7.lessen v.

  eg: We should gradually lessen the difference between the city and the countryside.

  8.defect /fault /error /mistake 都可以表示没有做对事情或事情做得不妥。

  1)Mistake在四个词中表意最笼统,可以用在日常的各种情况当中

  Eg: Your essay is full of mistakes.

  It was a mistake to go there on holiday.

  2)Error比mistake更书面化,通常用于书面语或比较正规的情况下。

  Eg: It is a technical error.

  3)Fault侧重于造成错误的个人责任。

  Eg: The child broke the window, but it was his parents' fault for letting him playing indoors.

  He has many faults, but laziness is not one of them.

  4)Defect指严重的缺陷

  The new car has to be withdrawn from the market because of a mechanical defect.

  9.intend to do = plan to do 打算做某事

  intention n.

  Eg: If I've hurt your feelings it was quite without intention. 如果我伤害了你的感情,完全是出于无意。

  10.confusion n.

  confuse v.

  Eg: Her unexpected arrival threw us into total confusion. 她来得很突然,使我们完全不知所措。

  They confused me by asking so many questions.

  11.necessity n.

  Eg: Necessity is the mother of invention. 需要是发明之母。

  Food, clothing and shelter are all basic necessities of life. 衣、食、住是生活的基本必需品。

  Phrase:

  1.in the least 一点,丝毫(不)(用于否定句)

  Eg: They are not in the least interested in skiing.

  2.to disapprove (of) 不同意

  3.with regard to关于…,对于… = in regard to = in regard of

  Eg: With regard to price, we think it is too high.

  4.feel like sth./ doing sth. 想做某事,愿意做某事

  Eg: I feeling like (having) a drink.

  5.not that …… but that … 不是因为…而是因为

  Eg: I can not attend your birthday party not that I'm unwilling to but that I have no time.

  6.(in)capacity to do (没)有…能力做

  7.as a whole 作为一个整体;总的来说

  Eg: As a whole, the climate here is very nice.

  8.(in-) ability to (没)有…的能力(这里to不是介词是不定式)

  Eg: He has the ability to do the work.

  9.among other things 除了其它方面,此外

  Eg: Mr. Smith returned to his hometown among other things, to see his old mother.

  10. clear …of … 把…从…中清除

  Eg: People are clearing the streets of snow.

  Ⅱ.Text A

  American Men Don't Cry

  译:美国男子汉一般不会哭

  American men don't cry because it is considered not characteristic of men to do so.

  译:美国的男子汉一般都不会哭。因为男子汉要哭了,那就被认为这个人不具备男子汉的特征。

  1.A is characteristic of B A是B的特征

  eg. Honesty is characteristic of children.

  Only women cry.Cry is a “weakness” characteristic of the female, and no American male wants to be identified with anything in the least weak or feminine.

  译:只有妇女才哭。哭是女性软弱的表现。不论做什么事,没有任何一个美国男人想要让人家认为有丝毫懦弱或者像个女人似的。

  2.be identified with 认为…等同于

  Eg: He identifies her happiness with his own. (这里用的是主动形式identify with)

  You can't identify money with happiness.

  Smoking is identified with committing suicide.

  In the least 一点

  Crying, in our culture, is identified with childishness, with weakness and dependence. No one likes a crybaby, and we disapprove of crying even in children, discouraging it in them as early as possible. In a land so devoted to the pursuit of happiness as ours, crying really is rather un-American.

  译:在我们的思想文化观念当中,哭哭啼啼总是跟孩子气、懦弱、不能自立联系在一起的。没有任何人会喜欢一个哭闹的孩子,所以即使对儿童来说,我们也不赞成他们哭,尽可能从很小的时候起,越早越好,鼓励孩子们不要哭。在像我们这样一个热衷于追求幸福快乐的国家里,哭哭啼啼实在不太合乎美国人的风度。

  Adults must learn not to cry in situations in which it is permissible for a child to cry. Women being the “weaker” and “dependent” sex, it is only natural that they should cry in certain emotional situations. In women, crying is excusable. But in men, crying is a mark of weakness. So goes the American belief with regard to crying.

  译:成年人都必须知道,凡在允许小孩子哭的情况下,成年人都不应该哭。因为女性是一种“软弱的”、“依赖男人的”性别,女性在特定的环境下引起感情波动,若是哭一通也是很自然的。对妇女们来说,哭是可以原谅的。可是对男人来说,哭就会给人留下软弱无能的印象。于是美国人对于哭泣的看法就这样产生了。

  mark n.标志;品牌

  go 表示进行,起作用

  eg. The meeting went better than we have expected.

  “A little man,” we impress on our male children, “never cries. Only girls and crybabies do.” And so we condition males in America not to cry whenever they feel like doing so.

  3.impress on/upon 牢记,铭记;给…以极深的印象

  eg: We impress on the young people that pride goes before a fall. 我们让青年人牢记骄者必败

  condition

  n.情况,境况   v.使适应,使习惯

  in the condition of 在…情况下

  at the condition 处于…情况下

  译:我们让我们的男性儿童铭记在心:“一个小男子汉永远也不会哭的,只有女孩子和刚刚生下来的小娃娃才会哭。”所以每当美国的男性想要哭的时候,我们就训练他们憋住别哭。

  It is not that American males are unable to cry because of some biological time clock within them which causes them to run down in that capacity as they grow older, but that they are trained not to cry.

  Run down 用尽,耗尽;变弱

  Eg. If you leave your head lights on, you will soon run down your battery.

  译:这并不是因为他们随着年龄的增长,体内某个生物钟上的哭的能力已经消耗殆尽,而是因为他们被训练得不许哭。

  And so the “little man” controls his desire to cry and goes on doing so until he is unable to cry even when he wants to.

  译:于是这“小男子汉”想哭的时候,也老是憋着不哭,一直憋到甚至当他想哭的时候也不会哭了。

  Thus do we produce a trained incapacity in the American male to cry. And this is bad.

  thus放在句首句子要倒装

  译:这样,我们就致使美国男性被训练成不会哭的人了。这很不好。

  Why is it bad? Because crying is a natural function of the human organism which is designed to restore the emotionally disequilibrated person to a state of equilibrium.

  译:为什么不好呢?因为哭是人的有机体中的一种很自然的功能,有这一功能就是为了让那些感情上失去了平衡的人,能恢复到感情上平衡的状态。

  The return of the disequilibrated organ systems of the body to steady states or dynamic stability is known as homeostasis. Crying serves a homeostatic function for the organism as a whole. Any interference with homeostasis is likely to be damaging to the organism. And there is good reason to believe that the American male's trained incapacity to cry is seriously damaging to him.

  译:把人体失去了平衡的器官体系恢复到稳定状态或恢复到正常运作状态下的稳定状态,被称为体内平衡。哭对于整个生物体的体内平衡起作用。对体内平衡的任何干扰都有可能损害人的有机体。所以,我们有充分的理由相信,把美国男性训练得不会哭,这会对美国男性造成严重的损害。

  It is unnecessary to cry whenever one wants to cry, but one should be able to cry when one ought to cry - when one needs to cry. For to cry under certain emotionally disequilibrating conditions is necessary for the maintenance of health.

  for :引导原因状语从句

  译:一个人不论任何时候想哭就哭,这实在是没有必要;但是当一个人应该哭的时候——也就是一个人需要哭的时候,应该能够哭出来。因为哭上一通在内心感情失衡的情况下,对保持身体健康是必要的。

  To be human is to weep. The human species is the only one in the whole of animated nature that sheds tears. The trained inability of any human being to weep is lessening of his capacity to be human - a defect which usually goes deeper than the mere inability to cry.

  go 进行,起作用

  译:只要是人就会落泪。在整个动物世界里,人类这个物种是唯一的会流泪的物种。把一个人训练成不会落泪的人,这就减少了他作为一个人所应有的能力。减少一个人所应有的能力,这一缺陷比仅仅是不会哭泣在意义上要深远得多。

  And this, among other things, is what American parents - with the best intentions in the world - have achieved for the American male. It is very sad. If we feel like it, let us all have a good cry - and clear our minds of those cobwebs of confusion which have for so long prevented us from understanding the natural necessity of crying.

  译:而这一点,尤其是这一点,正是那些怀着人间最美好的用心的美国父母们给美国男性养成的。简直是太可悲了。如果我们想哭的话,那就让我们好好地哭上一通吧,把那些很长时间以来使我们不能理解哭这种天性的需要、像蜘蛛网一样束缚人思想的种种糊涂想法,从我们的脑海中清除得干干净净吧。

  Ⅲ.Vocabulary Exercises

  For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper form of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.

  1.disapprove approve approval disapproval

  a.She wants to be a nurse but her parents disapprove of her intention.

  b.When the girl picked her nose at the dinner table, her father looked at her with disapproval.

  c.We have obtained the authorities' approval in our involvement in the program.

  d.If my project isn't approved of by the headmaster all my work will have been wasted.

  2.discourage encourage courage encouraging(a.) courageous

  a.The young explorer feels greatly discouraged by the difficulties he has encountered.

  encount: 遇到,遭遇

  b.When his opinion is different from that of the majority, the doesn't have the courage to say what he thinks right.

  c.The speaker felt fairly confident when he got a encouraging smile from the audience.

  d.The Association for Wildlife Preservation encourages members to protect the environment.

  e.The young man was courageous enough to break away from traditional ideas.

  3.permisssible permit permission

  a.Lies are not permissible evidence in court.

  b.Nobody can enter the air base without special permission.

  c.Smoking is not permitted in public places of recreation.

  4.organism organ organic

  a.The organ of political power should serve the people.

  b.Cities are more complex organism than self–sufficient villages.

  c.In a well-written article, all the paraphs should be written into an organic whole .

  Text B Stop Worrying Now!

  Ⅰ.New words

  take it easy :don't worry

  1.含有前缀的单词:

  immobilize v. 使固定,使不动

  →mobile a. 易于快速移动的

  2.含有后缀的单词:

  virtually ad. 实际地,实质地,事实上

  obsessive a. 缠人的,强迫性的;过分的

  justify vt. 证明…是正当的;为…辩护

  error n. 错误

  erroneous a. 错误的,不正确的

  sensible a. 感觉得到的

  sensibly ad. 感觉得到地;明智地,明白事理地

  sense n. 感觉

  minimize vt.将……减到最少

  minimum n.最小值, 最少量

  maximize v. 增加到最大量

  maximum n. 最大量

  absurd a. 荒谬的

  absurdity n. 荒谬

  compulsively ad. 强迫地

  enjoyment n. 享受

  troublesome a. 令人烦恼的,讨厌的;麻烦的,难处理的

  3.合成词:

  payoff n. 发工资;付清,偿还;

  backache n. 背痛,腰痛

  4.特殊记忆:

  dividend n. 红利,利息;回报,效益

  fulfill vt. 履行;完成

  resolve vt.使分解,解析;解决,消除

  solve vt. 解决,解答

  重要词汇:

  1.distress 常用于被动语态

  n. 痛苦,苦恼

  v. 使痛苦,使苦恼

  Eg: I was most distressed to hear the sad news of your father's death .听到令尊去世的消息,我十分难过。

  2.justify v. 证明……是正当的;为…辩护

  Eg: You shouldn't attempt to justify yourself.

  3.fulfill vt. 履行(promise, duty等); 完成(task等)

  Eg: He fulfilled his promise after graduation he returned to his hometown .

  4.resolve vt. 使分解,解析;解决,消除

  Eg: Her arrival did little to resolve the situation.

  Phrases:

  1.in the first place 首先

  in the second place 其次

  Eg: I would not advise you to read that book, in the first place, it is written in English and in the second place it is very difficult.

  2.hang on to (prep)

  hung hung 悬挂

  hang

  hanged hanged 绞死

  Eg: The boy hung on to his mother's apron, and would not let go. 男孩抓着他妈妈的围裙,不让她走

  The police have only one fingerprint to hang on to. 警察只有一个指纹印可作线索。

  3.use up v.用完, 耗尽

  同义词:run down 消耗,用尽

  Eg: He used up the money he had.

  和up相关的短语:

  use up / wash up 洗净/ dry up 干得一滴水都没有了

  4.give up 放弃;让出

  give in 屈服,投降

  eg: All hope of finding the missing plane was given up.

  He doesn't give in to his fate. 他不屈服于命运

  5.back down 放弃(要求等);让步

  Eg: He said he could swim, but he backed down when we got to the lake.

  Ⅱ.Text B

  Stop Worrying Now!

  马上停止不必要的担心!

  Worry is one of the most common forms of emotional distress in our culture. Almost everyone spends a considerable amount of present moments worrying about the future. And virtually all of it is for nothing. Obsessive worry will never make things any better. In fact, such worry will very likely help you to be less effective in dealing with the present.

  1.spend ……… doing

   in/on sth.

  eg. I spend much time in books.

  I spend much money on books.

  2.Considerable a. 相当多的

  have sb. to do 让某人…。

  the adj. 一类…

  译:在我们的日常生活中,担心是情绪上苦恼的最为普遍的形式之一。几乎每个人都会花费相当数量的大好时光用在为未来而担心。可是这一切的担心都是毫无用处的。过分的担心永远也不会使情况变得有丝毫改善。事实上,这种担心会使你处理现在的事务的工作效率变得更低。

  In order to reduce worry, it is necessary to understand the subconscious psychological “payoffs” for choosing to worry in the first place.

  it 为形式主语, to …为真正主语

  译:为了减少担心,首先,要从心理学上弄明白,事事都担心起来,会产生什么意想不到的后果。

  “I can't do a thing. I'm too worried about …” This is a common lament, and one with a payoff that keeps you standing still and avoiding the risk of action. Clearly, it is easier, if less rewarding, to worry than to be an active, involved person.

  译:“我什么事都没心思干,我总是非常担心……常听到有人这样哀叹,而这种哀叹的后果就是你呆呆地站在那里,根本不采取任何冒险性的行动。很明显,和积极采取行动比较起来,只是担心是比较容易做到的,只不过于事无补罢了。”

  By worrying about someone else, you can label yourself as a caring person. Worry proves that you are a good parent or spouse (“I can't help worrying - it's because I love you.”)。 A handsome dividend, although lacking in logical, healthy thinking.

  3.can't help doing 情不自禁地

  handsome a. 相当的

  译:替别人担心,你可以标傍自己是个关心他人的人。你担心了,这就可以证明你是位好家长或者好配偶。(我不能不担心——只是因为我爱你。)这话让人听了可真好哇,尽管这类想法缺乏逻辑性,也站不住脚。

  If you weigh too much, you may eat more when you worry; hence, you have a good reason for hanging on to the worry behavior.

  译:如果你身体肥胖,那么你心情不好的时候,你可能吃得更多;所以,你有充足的理由多吃,因为你老是心情不好嘛!

  Similarly, you may find yourself smoking more in troublesome situations, and can use the worry to avoid giving up smoking.

  4.Avoid  doing 逃避

  译:同样道理,在你心情不好的情况下,你很可能不知不觉地发现你的烟抽得更多了,你用心情不好作籍口,不去戒烟。

  The same neurotic reward system also applies to health. It may be easier for you to worry about chest pains than to risk finding out the truth, and then having to deal directly with yourself.

  译:这种从心理上找个籍口的办法也适用于人的健康状况。如果你胸痛,你只是担心有病,这要比冒险去检查出真实情况到底有病没病,然后直接去医院处置胸痛,要容易得多。

  Worry can bring a lot of diseases such as tension headaches and backaches. While these may not seem to be payoffs, they do result in considerable attention from others and justify much self-pity as well. And some people would rather be pitied than fulfilled.

  译:忧心忡忡可导致很多疾病,例如,情绪紧张性头痛或脊背痛。尽管人们可能觉得这些病症并不是“担心”所造成的后果,但是有了这些病确实能引起他人的关注,也能为自我怜悯找到理由。而有些人宁肯被人怜悯也不愿振作起来去充分发挥自己的才能。

  5.would rather …than …。 宁愿…也不愿意…

  Now that you understand the psychological support system for neurotic worry, you can begin to devise some measures for reducing the number of troublesome worry bugs that breed in this erroneous zone.

  6.now that 既然 = since

  译:现在既然你从心理学理论体系上已经明白了,“担心”具有神经过敏的性质,那么你就可以开始采取一些措施去减少在“担心”这个误区中产生的令人烦恼的“担心虫”的数量了。

  Begin to view your present moments as times to live, rather than times to worry about the future. When you catch yourself worrying, ask yourself, “What am I avoiding now by using up this moment with worry?” Then begin to attack whatever it is you're avoiding.

  7.view …as = see ……as 把……看作

  use up:用尽

  8.attack : resolve 解决

  译:马上开始吧!把你现在的时刻看成是应该好好地生活的时间,而不要看成是用来为了未来而忧心忡忡担心不已的时间。每当你突然发现你又在忧心忡忡起来,你不妨扪心自问:“我把这一时光耗费在不必要的担心上面,我在回避什么?”那么就开始动手去解决你所回避的问题吧。

  A friend of mine spent a week on an island off the Connecticut coast. She enjoys taking long walks, but soon discovered that there were a number of dogs on the island which were allowed to run free.

  译:我的一位朋友,离开了康涅狄格海岸去一个岛上度过了一周。她喜欢长时间在外面散步,不过不久她就发现那岛上有为数很多的狗,人们让这些狗到处乱跑。

  She decided to fight her worry that they might attack her. She carried a rock in her hand and resolved to show no fear as the dogs came running toward her. Seeing someone who refused to back down, they turned and ran away.

  resolve to do = decide to do 决定干…。

  = determine to do 决心…

  译:她决心战胜担心那些狗有可能袭击她的这种恐惧心理。她手里攥着一块石头,决心表示出,如果这群狗朝着她跑来她根本不害怕。这群狗因为见到了这位不后退不让步的人,就掉转头跑掉了。

  While I am not encouraging dangerous behavior, I do believe that a sensibly effective challenge to worry is the most productive way to minimize its role in your life.

  “to minimize its role in your life” 作 “way” 的后置定语

  译:尽管我并不鼓励冒险的行为,但我确信,采用切合实际的有效的方法来向“担心的心态”挑战,这是在你的生活当中,减少“担心的心态”所起的作用的最有效的办法。

  Ask yourself over and over, “Will the future change as a result of my worrying about it?” Try to remember how many of the things you once worried about never become real at all.

  over and over: again and again adv.再三地, 反复地

  as a result of 作为…的结果

  “my worrying about it” 是有逻辑主语的动名词

  有关动名词逻辑主语的例子:Do you mind my smoking here?

  never … at all : no/not … at all 根本不…。

  译:请你反复地扪心自问:“我的担心会使未来有所改变吗?”切记:你过去曾经一度为之担心的好多情况,根本没有真的发生过。

  Also ask yourself: “What's the worst thing that could happen to me (or them), and what is the likelihood of it occurring?” You'll discover the absurdity of most worries in this way.

  译:再问问你自己:“我能发生什么最坏的事情?这种最坏的事情发生的可能性大小如何?”这样,你就会发现绝大多数不必要的担心都是荒唐可笑的。

  Act in direct conflict with your usual areas of worry. If you compulsively save for the future, use some money for your own enjoyment today. Enjoy life; don't waste the present with immobilizing thoughts about the future.

  immobilizing : 固定不动的

  译:行动起来吧!直接去抵制,不再去担心你通常所担心的问题。如果你强迫自己为未来存钱,那就把一部分钱拿出来今天享用吧!享受生活吧!不要浪费现有的一切去顽固地为未来着想吧。

  These are some techniques for minimizing worry in your life. But the most effective weapon you have is your own determination to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life.

  to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life:为“determination”的后置定语

  译:这一切就是把你生活中的担心降低到最小程度的办法。但是你所拥有的最有效的武器就是把这种神经过敏的担心从你的生活中赶出去的决心。


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