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发表于:2009-09-29 17:00:57
09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit13)  Text A Insurance
  搭配:
  1. Be interested in 对什么感兴趣/动词词组
  2. Feel disturbed by 被什么打扰/动词词组
  3. Be eager to do sth. 渴望做某事
  4. Be of help=helpful 有帮助的
  5. On guard 警惕/介词词组
  6. In effect 事实上
  7. Pay for sth. 为某物付款/动词词组
  8. Sth. reminds sb. that 从句 某事使某人想起
  9. Depend on sb./sth. 依赖某人或某事/动词词组
  10. Look sth. in the face 正视某事/动词词组
  语言点:
  1. Enjoy后面必须接动词的doing形式,如:enjoy visiting sb.
  2. Our rational minds recognize the many unfortunate events that can occur,but in our hearts we hope that wee might be spared.(容易出翻译句)
  3. Yet these three reasons for not discussing(动名词作介词后的宾语,否定词应该放在动名词前面)insurance provide three excellent reasons why we should learn more about it.
  4. Neither should we depend entirely on the agent when we buy insurance.(本句话为倒装句,因为否定词neither被放在句首,这种倒装句的语序是neither 助动词 主语 动词的适当形式 其他)
  5. Although insurance can be complex,its basic concepts are neither difficult nor impossible to learn.
  Text B What Is Money and What Are Its Functions?
  搭配:
  1. Be familiar with 与什么事情很熟悉/形容词词组
  2. Search for 搜索/动词词组
  3. Be accepted as 被接受成为/动词词组
  4. Serve as a standard to sth. 作为衡量什么的标准
  5. Respond to sth. 反映某事
  6. In terms of sth. 就什么而言
  7. Be conscious of 意识到
  8. Be converted to 被转换成/动词词组
  9. ociate with 把什么和什么相连
  语言点:
  1. Deferred payment 延期付款;accepted medium 可接受的;工人的中介
  2. Convenient 方便的;inconvenient 不方便的
  3. Purchasing power 购买力


给我个侯皮筋儿做个弹弓子,砰她们家玻璃!
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发表于:2009-09-29 17:01:31
09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit14)  Text A The Importance of Being Kind and Polite
  “Frankly, I think you're boring.” Why do we seldom hear people speak so honestly?
  本句翻译:“公开跟你讲,我觉得你很讨厌。”为什么我们几乎听不到人们会这样非常直来直去的讲话呢?
  seldom 很少,几乎不
  Unless you want to end a relationship, you don't tell another person what you think of her or him like this.
  本句翻译:除非你要终止与对方的关系,要不然你不会跟对方说出你对她或他有这种不好的想法。
  unless (conj.)除非;如果不
  For example: I shall go there unless it rains. 如果不下雨,我将去那里。
  You will fail unless you work harder. 你若不更加努力,你就会失败。
  end (finish)结束
  Failing to be impressed by a friend's collection of stamps, yawning when a golfer tells you about that great shot he made on the 14th hole, or falling asleep when friends show pictures from their last trip to Sault Ste. Marie are all things that educated people try not to do.
  本句翻译:对你的朋友集邮的成就无动于衷;当一个高尔夫球手兴兴高采烈地告诉你,他的第14穴打得很精彩时,你却在打哈欠;当你的朋友们兴致勃勃地给你看他们最近到苏圣玛丽去旅游拍下的那些照片时,你却酣然入睡了——这一切都是有教养的人所尽力避免的。
  三个并列的动名次短语做句子的主语failing to be impressed…, yawning…, falling asleep…
  failing to be impressed 没有记住…
  yawning 打哈欠
  falling asleep 睡觉
  This is what manners are about: acting in a civilized way to avoid misunderstanding, friction, and conflict.
  本句翻译:一切行动都按市民能接受的懂礼貌的方式去做,避免误会,避免磨擦,避免冲突——这才是合乎礼貌的言行举止(注:高尔夫球,海外华人称“穴”,国内称“洞”——译者注)。
  manners 行为方式
  in … way 以某种方式
  There are no laws enforcing respect.
  本句翻译:根本就没有强迫你来尊敬别人的那种法律。
  Yet we cannot interact with others without some rules of behavior, rules that are set by some form of social consensus.
  本句翻译: 可是,如果没有一定的道德行为的准则,人们互相间就无法交往了。这些准则是以社会上一致赞成的公德的形式确定下来的。
  interact with others 彼此交流,彼此交往
  without some rules… 相当于一个条件状语从句的否定式
  These guidelines represent what a majority of people consider acceptable and what they consider unacceptable.
  本句翻译: 这些道德行为准则代表着大多数人所能接受的和他们认为所不能接受的做法。
  Rude people are those whose behavior shows little respect for the rules that the majority follow.
  本句翻译:那些行为举止根本不尊重大多数人所遵守的规则的人都是粗野的人。
  Show respect for 对…表示出尊重
  follow 遵守,遵循
  For instance, because they talk at home while the television is on, many people think they can talk at movies as well.
  本句翻译:例如,因为许多人在自己家里一边看电视一边高谈阔论,他们就认为在电影院看电影时也可以高声喧哗。
  for instance: for example 例如
  on: go on 进行
  They are not even aware that this habit will bother the other members of the audience.
  本句翻译:他们甚至没意识到,这种习惯会使其他一些电影观众感到讨厌。
  be aware that:意识到
  members of the audience 观众
  member 成员
  Restaurants have smoking and non-smoking sections, and most smokers are polite enough to ask, “Do you mind if I smoke?” before lighting up.
  本句翻译:饭店里都设有吸烟室和非吸烟区,大多数烟民在没点着香烟之前,都会很有礼貌的问一声在旁边就座的人:“我吸烟的话,您介意吗?”
  non- 没有,无
  before lighting up 点燃
  Restaurants should also have cellular-phone and no-cellular-phone sections.
  本句翻译:饭店里本来也都应该设有手提电话区和非手提电话区。
  A new class of rude people has been born: the look-at-me phone users whose boring conversations are just as dangerous to our mental health as smoke is to our lungs.
  本句翻译:现在又冒出来一群新的粗野人,即看我有多神气地打着手提电话的一族。这些人在电话上的那些无聊的谈话,对我们心理健康的危害,和吸烟对我们的肺部健康的危害是同样严重的。
  class 阶层,群体
  look-at-me 看看我
  Sometimes, it is better to remain unknown than to make people hate you.
  本句翻译:有时,做一个默默无闻的人倒比让人恨你、讨厌你更好一些。
  There are many children and adolescents whose behavior is generally unacceptable.
  本句翻译:有很多人家的子女和一些小青年的行为是一般人所不能接受的。
  They swear no matter who is around them, they listen to their Walkmans while the teacher is talking to them.
  本句翻译:他们动不动就开口骂人,也不管旁边有什么人在场。在教师同他们谈话时,他们还在听他们的随身听所播放的节目。
  no matter不管/不论(后可跟who, when, where, how 等疑问代词或疑问副词引导的从句)
  For example: No matter who you are, you should follow the guideline. 不管你是谁,你都应当遵守这个规则。
  I am bound to work out the problem no matter how difficult it is. 不管这个问题有多难,我一定要把它解决掉。
  Indifferent parents who refuse to discipline their children are not helping them.
  本句翻译:凡是那些不能用行为道德准则来约束自己的孩子,对孩子的品德漠不关心的父母,其实并不是在爱护孩子,对孩子的成长没好处。
  discipline: punish 惩罚
  Kids who have no idea what being polite means will pay the price sooner or later.
  本句翻译:凡是不懂礼貌为何物的孩子,是迟早要为此付出代价的。
  kid 小孩子
  have no idea: don't know 不知道
  For example: He has no idea what his future will be. 他不知道自己的未来是个什么样子。
  pay the price 付出代价
  For example: You will pay the price for what you have done. 你要为你所做的事情付出代价。
  sooner or later 迟早
  For example: If you drive like that, you will have an accident sooner or later. 你如果那样开车,迟早会出事的。
  When they join the work force, their employers and associates alike will soon realize that the behavior of these rude young people is closer to that of animals than civilized individuals.
  本句翻译:在他们参加工作以后,他们的雇主和在工作中与之打交道的那些人都会一致意识到这些粗野的青年人的所作所为都和野兽的行为很接近,而不像规规矩矩的市民。
  associate: colleague 同事
  close (to) (adv.)接近于,靠近
  When they lose a few contracts because they talk with their mouth full, or when they say “Bob” to someone who should be “Mr.Johnson,” these grown-up kids, because of their ignorance, will never understand why others are getting ahead and they are not.
  本句翻译:当这些已经变成了成人的大小伙子,因为跟领导谈话时嘴里还嚼着食物,或者因为他们没大没小,把本应尊称为“约翰逊先生”的人,随便直呼其名为“鲍博”,这样几次被解除了合同之后,他们永远也不能理解为什么别人都跑到自己前头飞黄腾达,而自己却不能。
  they talk with 该句型结构为:with (n.) (a.)构成的独立主格结构,在句中作状语,表示伴随。(名词后除可用形容词外,还可用分词<现在分词和过去分词>、介词短语和副词。)
  For example: He likes sleeping with his eyes open. 他喜欢睁着眼睛睡觉。
  I won't be able to study abroad with my mother’s being ill. 在我母亲生病的情况下我不能出国留学。
  He worked with the radio opened all the afternoon. 他一下午都听着收音机工作。
  He was looking on with his hands in his pockets. 他把手插在口袋里在一旁观看。即:袖手旁观。
  He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他穿着所有的衣服躺在**。即:和衣而卧。
  because of (介词短语)= because (连词)
  For example: The football match was cancelled because of rain. 由于下雨足球比赛被取消了。
  →The football match was cancelled because it rained.
  get ahead 有进展;有进步;取得成功
  For example: I'm happy to hear that you are getting ahead with your new work. 听说你的新工作取得进展,我很高兴。
  grown-up 长大了的孩子
  Every little bit of kindness helps.
  本句翻译:每当你表现出一点点和蔼可亲都会很有帮助。
  little bit of 一点点
  With manners, the best rule is the one that works.
  本句翻译:至于说有礼貌,最好的一条原则就是能办成事,能起好作用。
  work (v.)起作用,产生影响,行得通
  For example: The medicine worked. 药物奏效了。
  It is easier to look and sound attractive when we are nice to other people.
  本句翻译:当我们对待别人很友善,那么就比较容易地让人愿意接近你,愿意听你的话。
  be nice to sb. : be kind to sb.
  Being polite and showing respect can give us an edge.
  本句翻译:待人彬彬有礼,事事尊敬别人就能使我们占优势。
  give sb. an/the edge 比…略胜一筹,领先
  For example: He has the edge on the other students because he studies harder. 他比别的学生强,因为他学习更努力。
  Why do we need an edge? Success in life often starts with a job we like, and since getting a job is usually based on making the right impression, it is always a good idea to be kind and polite.
  本句翻译:我们要占优势干什么?一个人一生事业的成功经常是始于我们所喜欢的工作,而要得到自己所喜欢的工作,经常要靠给人留下良好的印象。待人和蔼可亲彬彬有礼总是上策。
  edge: advantage 优势
  start with: begin with 由…开始
  since 由于…
  be base of 以…为基础
  make a impression 留下印象
  makes the right impression (right 好的,正常的)
  Vocabulary Exercises
  Ⅰ。For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper form or the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.
  1. honest (诚实的) honesty(诚实) honestly(诚实地)
  a. (Honesty) is the best policy.
  本句翻译:诚实是最重要的原则。
  b. I didn't tell anyone, (honestly), I didn’t.
  本句翻译:我没有告诉任何人,坦白的说,我真的没有。
  c. To be (honest) with you, he often speaks evil of you behind your back.
  本句翻译:实话对你说,他经常在你的背后说你的坏话。
  2. understand (理解,明白) misunderstand(误解)   misunderstanding(误解)
  a. I cannot (understand) why he shows no respect for the rules the majority follows.
  本句翻译:我不明白为什么他对于大多数人所遵守的那个规则从来都不尊重。
  b. We should do everything possible to clear up the many (misunderstandings) between us.
  本句翻译:我们应当尽一切可能来清除我们之间的误解。
  c. He is not happy because his wife always (misunderstands) him.
  本句翻译:他过的并不开心因为他的夫人经常会误解他。
  3. accept(接受) acceptable(能接受的) unacceptable(不能接受的)
  a. She received a gift from him, but she didn't (accept) it.
  本句翻译:她收到男孩子给她的一份礼物,但是她没有接受这份礼物。
  b. He is angry with her because her words are totally (unacceptable)。
  本句翻译:男孩对于女孩非常愤怒,因为女孩所说的话令他完全不能接受。
  c. If you think the plan is (acceptable), you should do it according to the plan right now.
  本句翻译:如果你认为这个计划是可行的,那么你就应当马上根据这个计划去实施。
  right now 立刻,马上
  4. different (不同的) difference(不同) indifferent(冷漠的,不关心的)
  a. I'm (indifferent) to whether you go or stay. To be honest with you, I don’t care.
  本句翻译:我对于你去还是留根本就不关心。老实对你说吧,我不在乎。
  care 在意,在乎
  b. There are big (differences) between the two languages.
  本句翻译:在这两种语言之间有很大的区别。
  c. She is wearing a (different) dress every time I see her.
  本句翻译:每次我见到她,她都穿着不同的服装。
  every time 每一次
  5. employ (雇佣) employer(雇主) employment(职业,工作) employee(雇员)
  a. The factory is going to (employ) 20 more workers.
  本句翻译:这家工厂准备再雇用20名工人。
  b. He left his hometown to look for (employment) in a big city.
  本句翻译:他离开家乡到大城市去寻求工作。
  c. She has been working for the same (employer) for 20 years.
  本句翻译:她已经为这个雇主工作了20年。
  d. The total number of office (employees) almost doubled.
  本句翻译:这家公司总的员工的数目几乎已经翻一倍。
  Ⅱ。 Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.
  1. He told me he didn't like that (boring) job.
  本句翻译:他告诉我说他不喜欢那份乏味的工作。
  2. We'll need a few (guidelines) before we start this project.
  本句翻译:在没开始这个项目之前我们需要有一些规则。
  3. It is a great (kindness) for you to see me while I am sick.
  本句翻译:我生病的时候你来看我,你真是太好了。
  → It is greatly kind of you to see me while I am sick.
  for sb. to do 对于某人来说做某事
  4. Don't (bother) you father, he is busy at working .
  本句翻译:不要打扰你的父亲,他在忙于工作。
  5. The old man told her how to get there although she wasn't very (polite) to him.
  be polite to sb. 对某人彬彬有礼
  本句翻译:虽然这个女孩对老人不是太有礼貌,但是老人仍然告诉她如何到达那里。
  6. (Frankly) speaking, I don't think the plan will work.
  本句翻译:坦率地说,我觉得那个计划行不通。
  7. His speech left a deep (impression) on us.
  Leave/make an impression on sb. 给某人留下印象
  本句翻译:他的讲话给我们留下了很深的印象。
  8. I (swear) that I will tell you everything some day.
  本句翻译:我发誓有一天我会把一切事情都告诉你。
  9. Everyone praises the children's good (behavior)。
  本句翻译:每个人都表扬了孩子的良好行为。
  10. It's (rude) to point at people when you are talking with them.
  point at sb. 指着…
  本句翻译:当你和其他人谈话的时候你去指着别人这是不礼貌的。
  Text B Why We Walk in Circles
  in 以什么样的方式
  “Pin the Tail on the Donkey” is always fun when you're watching rather than pinning.
  本句翻译:观看别人做“去把尾巴给毛驴安上”的游戏,比自己亲自去做更逗人。
  pin (v.)用图钉钉
  rather than 而不是…
  donkey 驴
  as stubborn as donkey
  It is somewhat surprising to see how the blindfolded performers act.
  本句翻译:看到了被蒙住眼睛的参加游戏表演的人所走的路线着实有点儿让人吃惊。
  somewhat 有一点儿
  1. It is (a.) (for sb.)<有时可省略掉> to do
  For example: It is difficult to have a good job if you don't study hard to create opportunities.如果你不努力学习创造机会的话,有一份好的工作是很难的。
  Instead of going straight, they always wander off to one side or the other. The greater the distance to the donkey, the farther they go astray.
  本句翻译:他们都不走直线,总是要由一边偏离到另一边。参加游戏比赛的人距离毛驴越远,他们偏离目标毛驴也越远。
  2. instead of /instead
  wander off 徘徊,游离
  Have you ever wondered why they are unable to walk straight ahead?
  本句翻译:你有没有想过为什么他们不能够径直向前行呢?
  wonder 迷惑,疑惑
  It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control his direction.
  本句翻译:一个人若不用眼睛来掌握走路的方向,就会走成一个大圈。这一事实是众所周知的。
  Dark nights, dense fogs, blinding snowstorms, thick forests - all these can keep a traveler from seeing where he is going.
  本句翻译:每遇到漆黑的夜晚,浓浓的大雾,伸手不见五指的暴风雪,浓密森林——这一切都会使路上的行人看不见是在往哪个方向走。
  thick forests 茂密的森林
  3. keep … from … 阻止,防止,阻碍
  protect from
  prevent from
  其中的“from”多有“使…不能”的意思
  (1)keep sb from sth/doing使某人不能做某事
  (2)keep oneself from doing克制自己不要去做某事
  For example: The church bells keep me from sleeping. 教堂的钟声吵得我睡不着觉。
  She could hardly keep (herself) from laughing. 她忍不住大笑起来。
  Then he is unable to move in any fixed direction, but walks in circles.
  本句翻译:这时他就不能按既定的目标前进,只能走成一个大圆圈。
  4. in…direction 朝…方向
  Animals act the same way.
  本句翻译:动物也会这样。
  fixed固定的,既定了的
  You have probably heard the saying “running around like a chicken with its head cut off.”
  本句翻译:你也许听过这样一句老话:“像砍掉脑袋的鸡一样转着圈跑。”
  with (n.) V的过去分词构成的独立结构,在句中作状语。
  Well, a chicken with its head cut off actually does run around in circles. Blind birds fly in circles. And a blindfolded dog will swim in circles.
  本句翻译:是的,一只被砍掉了脑袋的鸡确实会转着圈跑的。瞎了眼睛的鸟也都是转着圈飞的。一双被蒙住了眼睛的狗也会转着大圈游泳。
  A Norwegian biologist, F.O.Guldberg, decided that this problem of circular movement was worth investigating. He collected many true stories on the subject.
  本句翻译:一位挪威的生物学家哥尔柏格认为绕圈运动的问题确实值得调查研究。关于这一课题他汇集了很多实际事例。
  worth 值得
  be worth doing 值得做某事
  For example: The textbook is worth reading again and again. 课本值得一读再读。
  On the subject :on关于
  5. be worth  v.ing
  One of his stories is about people rowing on a lake during a fog on a dark night.
  本句翻译:他汇集的实例之一就是在一个浓雾黑夜里,人们在湖面上划船。
  during 在一段时间里
  One group of rowers who tried to cross three miles of water in foggy weather never succeeded in reaching their goal.
  本句翻译:在大雾的天气里,一帮想要横渡三英里的水面的划船手永远也不能成功地划到他们的目的地。
  cross 横穿
  6. succeed in 成功做了一件事情→(反义)fail to do
  Without knowing it, they rowed in two large circles. When they finally got to the shore, they discovered that they were at the spot they had started from.
  本句翻译:不知不觉地,他们都把船划行路线划成两个大圈。在他们上个岸后,才发现又划回到了他们原来出发的地点。
  without knowing 不知不觉地
  shore 河岸,海岸线
  After studying many stories such as this, Professor Guldberg wrote an article in which he discussed “Circular Motion is the Basic Motion of Animals.”
  本句翻译:在研究过很多诸如此类的实际经历之后,哥尔柏格教授写了一篇题为《动物的基本运动模式是圆周运动》的论文。
  study 研究
  A simple example will help you to understand his explanation of why we walk in circles.
  本句翻译:一个很简单的例子,就可以帮助你弄明白他的论点:为什么我们会走成两个大圆圈。
  Have you ever wound up a toy automobile and started it off across the floor?
  本句翻译:你有没有把一辆玩具汽车上好发条以后,把它放到地板上让它从头跑到那头的经历?
  7. wind up给…上发条
  Then you know that it will rarely travel in a straight path. It will travel, instead, in some kind of arc, or curve.
  本句翻译:那么,你就会知道小汽车几乎很少顺着直线跑,而是以弧线或者曲线的方式前行。
  If it is to travel in a straight line, the wheels on both sides have to be of exactly equal size.
  本句翻译:如果你想要这辆小汽车以直线的方式前行的话,那么小汽车两侧的轮子就必须是同等大小。
  equal 相等
  If they are not, the little automobile turns toward the side with the smaller wheels.
  本句翻译:车两侧的轮子,如果它们大小不是相等的话那么这个小汽车将会转向轮子更小的那一侧。
  Circular movement in walking is caused in much the same way.
  本句翻译:步行时绕大圆运动的规律在很大程度上是由同一原理引起的。
  cause 导致
  in … way 以什么样的方式
  7. much the same 不完全相同,差不多一样,几乎一样
  For example: He is living condition is much the same as that five years ago.他现在生活状况和五年前差不多没有什么变化。
  Usually a man walking will “watch his step” and “look where he is going.”
  本句翻译:通常一个人走路时会看着脚下所踩的步子,会看着所要去的方向。
  watch his step (口语化的说法)注意脚下
  look where he is going 看着前方
  a man walking
  (1)通常情况下,单个的分词作定语的在名词的前面;分词短语放在被修饰的名词之后。
  For example: He often helps his working wife at home. 他在家中经常帮助他工作的妻子。
  Who is the lady standing by the door? 站在门口的那位女士是谁?
  (2)有时,单个的分词放在名词后作定语,具有较强的动词意义,其作用相当于一个从句。
  For example: Atomic energy is the greatest source of energy existing. 原子能是现存的最大的能源。
  They decided to change the material used. 他们决定改变所用的材料。
  He needs his senses, especially his eyes, to get to the point he intends to reach.
  本句翻译:一个人需要用他们的各种器官,特别是要用两只眼睛,才能走到他打算要去的地点。
  8. intend to do 想要/打算/计划做某事
  For example: What do you intend to do today? I intend to go out for a walk. 你打算今天做什么?我今天打算出去散步。
  When he cannot use his eyes to guide his steps, he will walk straight only if he takes a step of the same length with each foot.
  本句翻译:只有当一个人的两只脚所迈出的每一步的长短都完全相同时,这个人才可以不用眼睛来引导脚步而能够顺着一条直线往前走。
  In most people, however, muscle development is not the same in both legs, so that it is probable that the steps will be uneven.
  本句翻译:但是,在绝大多数人左右两腿肌肉的发育并不是一样的,结果很可能左右两脚所迈的步子长短是不一致的。
  so that 因此…引导是结果状语从句
  The difference may be so small that no one is aware of it. But small as it is, it can cause circular movement.
  本句翻译:迈步子长短的差距是非常小的,以致于没有人会意识到这一微小的差距。尽管这个差距很小,但结果却导致了圆周运动。
  9. as / as though
  small as it is “是as/as though 引导的让步状语从句,此时从句应倒装(部分倒装),其结构为”形容词/名词/动词) as (though) 主 谓
  (a.)(n.)(v.) as/as though  s  v
  For example: Pretty as she is, she is not clever.她虽然很漂亮但是不聪明。
  Child as he is, he has to make a living.虽然他是一个孩子,但是他必须去谋生。
  Try as he would, he might fail again.尽管还有可能再试着去做,但是他还是有可能失败。
  注:若从句的表语是n.,其名词前不加任何冠词。
  Let us suppose that a man's left foot takes a step 20 inches long and that his right foot takes a step 30 inches long.
  本句翻译:我们假定某一人的左脚迈一步是20英寸长,右脚迈一步是30英寸长。
  Now suppose he takes ten step - five with his left foot and five with his right.
  本句翻译:现在假设这个人迈了十步——左脚迈五步,右脚也迈五步。
  His left foot will travel 100 inches. His right foot will travel 150 inches.
  本句翻译:他的左脚总共走了100英寸,他的右脚总共走了150英寸。
  travel 运行,前行
  This sounds impossible. One foot cannot remain 50 inches behind the other.
  本句翻译:这听起来让人觉得不可能。因为一只脚不可能落后于另一只脚五十英寸。
  What really happens?
  本句翻译:到底是怎么回事呢?
  At each step the man turns a little bit to the left.
  本句翻译:每迈一步这个人就稍微向左转了一点点。
  Sooner or later he makes a complete circle.
  本句翻译:迟早,他会走成一个大圆圈。
  The tracks of his feet, however, make two circles, one inside the other.
  本句翻译:于是他的两只脚所走过轨迹就形成了两个圆圈,一个圆圈在另一的内部。
  track 足迹,脚印
  His left foot makes the smaller circle because it is taking larger steps.
  本句翻译:他的左脚所走的圈比较小,因为右脚的每一步都大一点。
  This is why a person may walk in an arc when he sets out in a straight line.
  本句翻译:这就是一个人在出发时本来是想走的直线,结果却走成了一条弧线的原因。
  The muscles of a man's arms are no more identical than the muscles of his legs.
  本句翻译:一个人的两只胳膊肌肉的发育和他的两只腿的肌肉的发育也是不同的。
  10. no more(…)than…仅仅;不过/和…一样都不
  For example: He is no more than an employee. 他仅仅是一名员工。
  He is no more able to operate computer than I am. 他和我一样都不会用计算机。
  This explains why the rowers who set out to cross the lake at night rowed in a circle.
  本句翻译:这足可以说明这些在夜间出发去横渡湖面的划船手把船划行的路线划成了一个大圆圈的道理。
  By the same rule, a bird's wings do not develop evenly, and so it will fly in circles when blinded.
  本句翻译:同理,鸟的左右两个翅膀的发育也是不均衡的,所以如果它的眼睛瞎了以后,也会绕圆圈飞行。
  by the same rule 同理
  Thus, dear readers, our circular mystery has a very straight answer.
  本句翻译:由此可见,亲爱的读者,这就是我们的圆圈运动之迷的最直截了当的答案。
  circular 圆圈的
  straight 直线的;直接的
  On one hand, from the word itself, we can see that one is “circular”, the other is “straight”, the two words are in contrast with each other; on the other hand, the circular mystery has been thought for a long time and tested again and again; however, the answer is absolutely certain. So, both of the two words are used in double senses, creating a special effect.
  本段翻译:这是从字面意思来看一个是圆的,一个是直的,他们之间是相对的两个词,另外一个方面说有关圆圈之谜,被大家思考了很久的时间了,一次又一次地进行实验,而最终得到的答案却是一目了然的事情,这样一来,两个单词被在一起使用一语双关,产生了一种独特的效果。
  Vocabulary Exercises
  Ⅰ。Supply a word that you have learned in Text B. The first letter is given.
  1. The full moon has a (circular) form.
  本句翻译:全月它有一个圆的外形。
  2. If there were no friction, an object in (motion) would never come to a rest.
  本句翻译:如果没有摩擦力,那么一个在运动的物体永远也不会停下来。
  come to a rest 停下来
  3. The road is not straight. You should drive slowly when you come to a (curve)。
  本句翻译:这条路不太直。当你到路的转弯处时一定开的慢一点。
  curve 弯曲,转弯处
  4. The economic development in the country is (uneven): some areas are highly developed; while some other areas are rather underdeveloped.
  本句翻译:这个国家经济发展不均衡:有一些地区是高度发达地区;而其它一些地区是相当落后。
  5. The fingerprints of no two persons are (identical)。
  本句翻译:任意两个人的指纹都是不同的。
  identical 同样的,一样的
  6. When the tree fell in the snowstorm, it (pined) him to the ground.
  本句翻译:当这棵大树在暴风雨中倒下来时,它把这个男士压在了地面上。
  7. It is(well-known)that money serves a variety of functions.
  本句翻译:众所周知,钱有很多种功能。
  8. The engineers are thoroughly (investigating) the causes of the gas explosion.
  本句翻译:工程师们正在彻底调查有关煤气爆炸的原因。
  9. The flower show was (intended) primarily for commercial purpose.
  本句翻译:这次花展首先是为了商业上的目的才运行的。
  10. I've made a mistake, though I didn’t (intend) to.
  本句翻译:虽然我不愿意犯错误,但是我还是犯了错误。


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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit15)  Text A How TV Violence Affects Kids
  搭配:
  1. Exposure to 暴露于;接触到e.g. exposure to violence 接触到暴力
  2. Have effects on sb./sth. 对某人/某事有影响;affect 为动词;effect 为名词
  3. Point out 指出
  4. Distinguish sth./sb. from sth./sb. 区别某事或某人
  5. Tend to do sth. 倾向去做某事
  6. Make better sense of sth./sb. 更好的理解某人或某事
  7. Apply sth. to sth. 把什么应用在什么上
  8. Make sb. guilty 让某人很内疚
  9. As an alternative to sth./doing sth. 作为什么的替换
  语言点:
  1. Between 1982 and 1986, the amount of television time allocated(过去分词作后置定语) each week to(把什么分配给某人,尤指时间) violent programs increased significantly.
  2. Given(考虑到) the amount of time that children watch television, it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.
  3. Recover 恢复(v.); recovery 恢复
  4. Realistic 现实的(adj.); unrealistic 不现实的(adj.)
  5. Children naturally often want the toys shown(过去分词shown做toys的宾语补足语,表是被上演) on and advertised during these programs.
  6. Imitate 模仿(v.); imitative (adj.)
  7. Imagine 想象(v.); imaginative (adj.)
  8. Children simply imitate the behavior observed during the program, thus undermining (现在分词做结果状语, 表示破坏)both the imaginative and the expressive functions of play.
  9. Appear to be 形容词;e.g. appear to be crazy 好像疯了一样
  10. It would be a good idea to control his viewing.(动名词观看电视作宾语)
  11. Controlling viewing(动名词作主语) is easier to do during the preschool years than during the school years, so you should initiate a pattern of restricted television watching now.
  12. Help your child to interpret what she sees-to think of explanations for the events depicted(过分作后置定语,表示被描述的)and to imagine how the show is put together.
  13.  Violent 暴力的;nonviolent 非暴力的
  Text B Why Don‘t Girls Think Like Boys?
  搭配:
  1. Be better at sth./doing sth. 擅长做某事
  2. According to 根据
  3. On the average 平均地
  4. Show ability in sth./doing sth. 有做某事的能力
  5. Be determined by sb./sth. 有什么(人)决定
  6. Have an advantage 有什么优势
  7. Keep close to sb. 与某人亲密
  8. Insist upon doing sth. 坚持做某事
  语言点:
  1. 时态题:In recent studies, young babies have been observed and tested to discover how different abilities are developed.
  2. Thinking ability 思维能力
  3. The baby,while seated(不能用seating) on its mother‘s lap, watches a “show” on a small theater stage.
  4. Girls immediately become excited(用ed是因为这是人内心的情感,如果给别人造成某种影响应该用ing的形式) and begin to make noises that sound like language.
  5. Seem后面只能用to do 的形式
  6. But what have the boys been doing(现在完成进行时,表示动作持续) in the years before starting school?
  7. It has long been assumed that 从句(长期以来,人们认为)
  8. Require doing sth. 要求做某事


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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit17) Text A Panic and Its Effects
  搭配:
  1. Be diagnosed as 被诊断为
  2. Bear similarity to sb./sth. 与什么很相似
  3. As to sb./sth 有关于某人或某事
  4. At least 至少
  5. Become isolated from 与什么相隔立
  6. Advice to sb. 给某人的建议
  7. Consult sb. for sth. 咨询某人某事
  8. Rule out 排出
  9. Seek help 寻求帮助
  语言点:
  1. One afternoon while she was preparing(从one afternoon 可以判断出是过去时;从连词while可以判断出是进行时态,所以为过去进行时)dinner in her kitchen,Anne Peters,a 32-year-old(有连字符时不能加复数)housewife,suddenly had severe pains in her chest accompanied(过去分词做后置定语,表被动,是伴随的意思)by shortness of breath.
  2. Frightened(由于此处表示主语Anne自己的情感,所以使用frighten的过去分词frightened) by the thought that she was having a heart attack, Anne screamed for help.
  3. Uneasy(心神不安的,不舒服的)-easy
  4. They often become easily frightened or feel uneasy in situations where(定语从句中缺少地点状语) people normally would not be afraid.
  5. Many claim that psychological stress could be a logical cause, but as yet, no evidence has been found(完成时的被动语态) to support this theory.
  6. It is reported that 从句 据报道;it is generally agreed that 从句 大家认为
  7. Danger (n.危险)-endanger(v.使危险)
  Text B Sleepwalking——Fact or Fancy?
  搭配:
  1. Commit murder 谋杀
  2. Search for sth. 寻找
  3. Wake(过去是为woke)up 醒来/唤醒
  4. Have the habit of doing sth. 有做某事的习惯
  5. Border on 近似于;称得上
  6. Have inhibitions against 抑制
  7. In general 通常说来
  8. Be exaggerated in 在什么方面很夸张
  9. More or less 多多少少/几乎
  10. Become alarmed about 小心,留意
  语言点:
  1. Endless 无穷无尽的
  2. Persons have been said/reported/known to do sth. 据说人们曾经做过…
  3. Lost boy 迷路的小男孩
  4. Sleepwalking(动名词作主语) is a scientific reality.
  5. What(主语从句中缺少主语指事用waht) is certain about sleepwalking is that it is a symptom of emotional disturbance.
  6. Doctors say that sleepwalking is much more(common的比较级是more common,much放在比较级前用来强调) common than is generally supposed.医生说梦游要比原来人们认为的更为普通。
  7. Publicized 出版的
  8. 形容词或副词 enough to do sth. 到了某种程度以至于做某事


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发表于:2009-09-29 17:22:26
09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit18)  Text A Why Are Maps Drawn with North at the Top?
  搭配:
  1. Little more than 仅仅是
  2. Place sth. on a sound footing 把什么建立在可靠的基础上
  3. Be known to sb./sth. 为某人或某事所知
  4. Base on 建立在什么基础之上
  5. Rather than 而不是
  6. Attempt to 试图做某事
  7. In the form of 以某种形式
  8. Be unaware that 从句 没有意识到
  9. The reason for sth. 什么的原因
  10. Interfere with 干涉
  11. In accordance with 根据
  12. With the spread of sth. 随着什么的扩展
  13. Increasing reliance on sb./sth. 越来越依赖
  语言点:
  1. It was not until many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed the science of map-making on a sound footing. 这是一个典型的强调句型,not until many centuries later是被强调的成分。
  2. Flattened 平面的
  3. Given(考虑到) the state of knowledge of those times, he got things wrong.
  4. His estimate of China and the Atlantic Ocean was far from being accurate.(动名词作介词宾语,表示一点不准确)
  5. Move(v.移动)-immovable(adj.固定不变的);use(v.使用)-useless(adj.无用的)
  6. Assume 假定
  Text B You Have a Choice
  搭配:
  1. Travel side by side 并列行驶
  2. Be certain of 对什么很确定
  3. Bring about 引起
  4. Account for 解释
  5. Lead to the same result 导致同一结果
  6. Choose one over another 选择一个而不选择另一个
  7. Deal with 处理;解决
  语言点:
  1. We are seated in one of the trains, and with us we have a special speedometer that measures their relative speed.
  2. Furthermore,regardless of which explanation we choose,the end result will be the same.
  3. Motion(n.行动)-motionless(静止的)
  4. At the train station we cannot tell whether it was our train or not.
  5. Only after the other train pulled out of the station could we see that it,and not our train,was moving.本句话为倒装句,由only 状语从句构成 助动词 主语 动词的适当形式 其他


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发表于:2009-09-29 17:22:48
09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit19)  Text A  Animals at Risk: Who Cares?
  搭配:
  1. Keep pace with 跟上步伐
  2. Compete with 与谁竞争
  3. Threat to sb./sth. 对某人或某事构成威胁
  4. Be claim to be 声称
  5. Be concerned about 对什么感到很担心
  6. Look after 照顾
  7. Be armed with 装备
  语言点:
  1. An animal species becomes(虽然species是以s结尾,但此处该词跟在冠次an后,还是单数,所以谓语become用了单数) extinct when it fails to produce enough young in each generation to keep pace with the death rate.
  2. Better-adapted 更能适应环境的
  3. A number of examples can be given of the way in which(定于从句之所以用in which,是因为in the way表示以某种方式) natural environments are being rapidly changed.
  4. Likelihood 可能性
  5. Because表示因为是连词,后面应该接句子;because of 表示因为是介词短语,后加名词或代词。
  6. Provided(that) 从句,表示如果
  7. There is great pleasure in watching wildlife in natural or near-natural environments.
  Text B  The killer Smogs
  搭配:
  1. Be filled with 充满
  2. Be caused by 由什么引起的
  3. Turn into 转变成
  4. Combine sth./sb. with  把什么结合在一起
  5. Be blown away 被吹走
  6. Be due to sb./sth./doing sth. 因为
  7. Breath in 呼进
  语言点:
  1. Fog(n.雾)-foggy(adj.雾的)
  2. The first reported event 第一个被报道的事
  3. Older people with lung or heart diseases were hit(受害最重/受打击最重) hardest.
  4. Deadly 致命的
  5. Bad的最高级worst
  6. The polluted air 被污染的空气
  7. Affect(v.影响)


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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit20)  Text A You Can't Do It Because It Hurts Nobody
  搭配:
  1. Be aware that 从句 意识到
  2. Range from…to…范围从什么到什么
  3. Vary in degree 程度不同
  4. Be tolerant of 忍受
  5. Care about 在意
  6. Prevent sb. from sth./doing sth. 阻止某人做某事
  7. When it comes to doing sth. 涉及到,谈到
  8. A mass of 众多
  9. End up with 以什么来结束
  10. Keep an eye on sb. 留心,留意
  语言点:
  1. Custom 风俗、习惯;customs 海关
  2. In case 句子,表示“假如,万一”
  3. Much less than 这里less是little得比较级,less than是比什么少的意思,much放在比较级前用来强调。
  4. In addition to breaking the law themselves, people tolerate various levels of crime.
  5. It may be that, by seeing others do something, we accept it more easily. See sb. do sth. 看到某人做某事的全过程,或,see sb. doing sth.看到某人正在做某事
  6. Most people will find it easier to speed on a highway when everybody else is driving over the speed limit.此句为形式宾语句,形式宾语句的顺序如下:主语 谓语 it 名词或形容词 动词不定式to 其他
  7. We must also wonder whether seeing violence on television or reading(动名词作主语) about it in the newspapers every day makes us tolerate crime more than we should.
  8. Used to do sth. 表示过去常常做某事
  Be/get/become used to doing sth. 现在习惯于做某事
  9. They may not mind cheating on taxes. Mind后面需要加动词的ing形式。
  10. Acceptable 可以接受的
  11. Have misconception about sth. 对什么有错误的观点
  12. It is surprising 从句,之所以用surprising而不是surprised是由于它表示某事令某人惊讶;surprised更倾向于某人内心自我感到惊讶
  13. 10% of Canadians have a criminal record. 语法题:百分比或分数,其后如果是可数名次复数,那么谓语动词用复数;其后如果是不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。
  Text B Marriage in Iran and America: A Study in Contrasts
  语言点:
  1. Though marriage is practiced(人们都在做的事) in almost all countries of the world, the customs are qite different from one culture to another.(第一自然段第一句):虽然结婚是世界上几乎所有的国家的人们都在做的事情,但结婚的习俗确随文化不同而大相径庭。
  2. It(形式主语) is interesting for me to(动词不定式作真正主语) compare the customs of marriage in the United States with(compare sth./sb. with sth./sb.拿什么人或时进行比较)those in my country.(第一自然段第二行)
  3. I've lived in the U.S. for four years now, but I’m still not comfortable with(对什么习惯) the customs here.我在美国已经生活了四年,但还是不习惯这里的风俗习惯。
  4. In fact, what seems strange to me(主语从句中缺少主语指事用what) is that courting or dating is not always for the purpose of(为了什么的目的) finding a husband or wife.(第二自然段第二行)其实,我觉得奇怪的是,求爱或者约会的目的并非总是为了找丈夫或者妻子。
  5. Do sth. as a hobby 把做什么当作习惯
  6. 翻译题:They seem to have a lot of freedom to decide and do what they want.(第三自然段第二行)它们有很大的自由来决定和做自己想做的事。
  7. Do sth. without the knowledge of sb. 做某事而不让某人知晓
  8. In fact, I have known several friends who got married(结婚) without even telling(动名词作介词宾语) their parents or other family members.
  9. Wedding ceremony 结婚典礼
  10. A prepared speech 准备好的演讲
  11. Be willing to do sth. 愿意做某事
  12. If they both say “yes,” and nobody attending(现在分词做后置定语) the wedding stands up to object(站起身反对), they are declared “man and wife.”(第四自然段倒数第四行)如果双方都说同意,并且出席婚礼的人当中也没人站起来反对,就宣布他们为夫妻。
  13. Be involved in 参与
  14. If she is pleased, (表示人内心的情感,用过去分词作表语)then she will return another day with her son. (第五自然段倒数第四行)如果母亲满意了,他会某天带儿子再来。
  15. The actual marriage ceremony is quite different, however, from(与什么不同) the American wedding ceremonies I have seen.
  16. Twice the bride must remain(保持,是个半系动词,后面接形容词) silent to the questions of the mullah.(第六自然段第六行)对毛拉(参考593页单词表里对毛拉的注解)两次提出的问题,新娘都不应作答。
  17. Take care of 照顾或处理
  18. Sth. given to sb. 赋予给某人某事 e.g. the freedom that is given to American youths 赋予给美国年轻人的权利。


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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit21)  Text A The Language of Uncertainty
  第一段
  1. Uncertainty spreads through our lives so thoroughly that it dominates our language.(第一句)
  Spread(传播) through our lives thoroughly=在我们的生活中无处不在
  不确定性在我们的生活中无所不在,以致它支配着我们的语言。
  2. 第二句:is made up in large part of words
  be made up of 构成;in large part 很大程度上
  3. 第五行:“is likely to destroy forever the nation that wages it.”
  Be likely to do sth. 很可能做某事;wage it(the war) 发动战争
  4. 最后一句话:Lacking(现在分词作原因状语,用现分的原因是主语we能够发出lack的动作) any standard for estimating the probability, we are left with(放任) the judgment of the editorial writer.
  因为我们缺乏任何估计这一可能性的标准,只好听任社论作者去做出判断了。
  第二段
  1. 第一句:Such verbal imprecision is not necessarily to be criticized.
  Be necessarily to do sth. 做某件事情没有太大必要
  句中采用了to be criticized是由于主语verbal imprecision(言辞的不精确性)无法发出criticize(批评)的动作。
  这类言辞的不精确性并非一定要受到批评。
  2. 第二句:allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事
  be out of the question 不可能;不能接受;be out of question 没问题
  第三段
  1. 最后一句:can not be reduced to sth./sb.
  be reduced to 转化为
  第四段
  1. 第一句:pin down sth. 准确说明
  2. 最后一句:compare sb./sth. with sb./sth. 拿某人或某事对比
  第五段
  1. First, we find that the number depends, of course, on the items involved.(过去分词作后置定语,表示涉及)
  Depend on 依靠;依赖
  当然,我们首先发现的是数目决定于涉及的事务。
  2. 第三行:However, unrelated(不相关的) areas sometimes show parallel(相似、类似) values.
  然而,同一个词在不相关的领域中有时量值相似。
  3. 第五行:be certain to do sth. 一定做某事
  4. 第六行:signify to sb. 对某人意味着
  be likely to do sth. 很有可能做某事
  第七段
  1. 第一行:Thirdly, there is a marked (过分作定语,表示明显的)change with age.
  数目随年龄显著变化
  2. 第二行:The older the child, the fewer glass balls he will take. 越来越句型
  年龄越大,取得玻璃球就越小。
  3.P603页,上数第二行:in place of 替代
  Text B It Never Rains but It Pours
  第一段
  1. 第二行:used to do sth. 过去常常做某事
  请比较 be/get/become used to doing sth. 习惯做某事
  2. 第五行:regard sth./sb. as 把什么看成
  with no relevance to sb./sth. 与某人或某事没有联系
  第二段
  1. 第一句:Advice about how to live a healthy life is one example of the type of received wisdom which is condensed and passed on to the next generation in the form of proverbs.
  介词about后面是动词不定式to作宾语,动词或介词后可以 特问词 to do sth.的用法。E.g. I don't know where to go.或what to say.
  Received wisdom 公认的智慧
  Pass on to 传与后代
  In the form of 以某种形式
  2. 第四行:There is no smoke without fire. 无风不起浪。
  第三段
  1. 第二行:Don't wash your dirty linen in public. 家丑不可外扬。
  2. 第五行:It's no use crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。
  3. 最后一行:Make the best of a bad job. 亡羊补牢。
  第四段
  1. P615上数第三行:This proverb is based on(基于) an old English law dating back to(追溯到) the 17th century.
  2. P615上数第六行:Hence the idea carried in the proverb that everyone should be allowed to make a mistake without being punished for it.
  因此,格言包含的寓意是,应该允许任何人犯一次错而不受惩罚。
  第五段
  1. 第四行:be harmful to sb. 对某人有害
  2. 第五行:Don't cause trouble when it(指trouble) can be avoided. 能避开时就别去惹麻烦。
  第六段
  1. 第一行:As Britain came into contact with(开始接触) other countries and cultures, English became enriched with(变得丰富多彩) the words and wisdom of different languages.
  随着英国接触别的国家和文化,英语吸收了不同语言的词汇和智慧,因而变得丰富多彩。
  2. 第五行:It(形式主语) is often easier to carry it through to the end(真正的主语) than to (不可省略,因为than前面与后面应该并列同等)stop halfway. (开始了某项危险的事业),坚持到底比半途而废要更容易。
  第七段
  1. 第一行:Some proverbs have been(完成时的使用是因为后面的时间状语为时间段) in the language for 1,000 years.
  2. 第二行:The message here is that someone who stays with you and helps you in times of trouble, rather than(相当于一个介词,表示而不是) turning their back, is a true friend.
  意思是在困难时帮助你,和你共患难而不是对你置之不理的人才是你真正的朋友。
  第八段
  1.第三行:remind sb. that 从句 提醒某人某事
  3. P616. 上数第一行 If someone buys you lunch, they will expect a favor in return.(回报)
  如果有人请你吃午饭,他会指望将来你给他回报。
  第九段
  1. 第一行:Some English people are reluctant to(不愿做某事) use proverbs in their everyday conversation because they see them as(把什么看作) vehicles(表现) of too much used wisdom(陈词滥调)。 有些英国人在日常谈话中不愿使用格言,因为他们把格言看成是陈词滥调的表现。
  2. 第四行:written English 书面英语;spoken English 口头英语
  homely 简明扼要的
  commentary on sth. 点评某事
  最后一行:be useful to sb. 对某人来说很有用


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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit22) Text A Current Attitudes toward Physical Fitness
  一、New Words
  1.前缀单词
  1)misuse(vt.) 1.误用,滥用;2.苛待,虐待
  (n.)  误用,滥用
  2)reexamine(vt.) 1.再考,复试;2.再调查,再审查
  2.后缀单词
  1)fitness(n.) 1.适合,恰当,合理;2.健康
  2)involvement(n.) 1.卷入,牵连(in);2.牵连到的事,复杂情况
  3)limitation(n.) 1.限制;2.限度,局限
  4)locker(n.) (公共场所供个人存放衣物用的)带锁的小柜
  5)commitment(n.) 承担的责任或义务,承诺
  6)accomplishment(n.) 1.完成;2.成就;3.[pl.]造诣,技能
  同义词:achievement
  7)positively(ad.) 1.确定地,明确地;2.积极地,肯定地
  3.合成词
  1)time-consuming(a.) 耗费时间的
  2)shortsighted(a.) 1.近视的;2.目光短浅的;
  反义词:longsighted 有远见的
  4.特殊记忆
  1)recreation(n.) 1.消遣,娱乐,娱乐活动;2.(身心)修养
  5.核心单词
  1)assure(n.) 1.使确信,使放心(of);2.向…保证(of)
  句式结构:assure sb of;assure sb that
  For example 1:I assure you of passing the exam. 我保证你能通过考试。
  For example 2:He assured his wife that he would make much money to live a happy life with her. 向他的妻子保证说,他会挣很多钱,同她一起过幸福的生活。
  2)priority(n.) 1.优先,重点,优先权;2.优先考虑的事
  For example:At present study is my priority. 目前学习是我的重点。
  3)schedule(n.) 时间表,日程安排表,即 timetable
  (vt.) 安排,排定;同义词 arrange
  For example:The plane is scheduled to take off at four p.m…… 这架飞机定于下午四点起飞。
  4)facility(n.) 1.[常pl.]设备,设施;2.便利,容易;
  同义词:equipment(没有复数形式,表示一套设备)
  5)career(n.) 1.生涯,经历;2.职业,事业
  加“er”不一定是人。如“cooker 炊具、typewriter 打字机”
  6)comment(n.) 1.评论;2.评注;搭配 make comments on/upon:对……做出评论/评注
  (vi.) 1.评论;2.注释;搭配 comment on/upon:意思是评论……
  For example:He is reluctant to make any comments on the matter. 他不愿意对这件事做出任何评论。
  7)maintain(vt.) 1.维持,保持;2.维修,保养
  ① The monitor maintains the order of the class when the teacher is absent.
  当老师不在的时候,班长就维持课堂秩序。
  当 maintain 表示“保持”的时候,用作系动词
  e.g. maintain silent 保持沉默
  e.g. maintain quiet 保持安静
  ② His task is to maintain the highway. 他的任务是维修公路。
  8)approach(vt.) 1.靠近,接近;come near 2.探讨,处理(问题)deal with
  (n.) 1.接近;2.途径,方法
  ① As you approach the town, the first building you can see is the school.
  接近那座城镇的时候,首先看到的是那所学校。
  ② He tried everything to approach the difficult problem.
  他想尽一切方法来处理这个难题。
  ③ The scientists haven't found a correct approach to the disease.
  科学家们尚未找到治疗这一疾病的正确方法。
  二、Text A
  Current Attitudes toward Physical Fitness(当前人们对待健身的种种态度)
  注意:
  1.current 意思是目前的,当前的;
  2.Attitudes 意思是态度。表示“对于……的态度”时,后面一般加“to 或 toward”;
  3.Physical Fitness 意思是健身。
  physical exercise 锻炼身体
  Recently we were told by a student that setting aside time for improving his physical fitness would be a total misuse of his working hours.
  译:最近,有个学生告诉我们说,分出一部分时间去提高身体健康的水平,纯粹是挤占了他的学习时间。
  1.to set aside 1.留出,拨出;2.忽视,不顾;
  同义词:ignore
  ① He set aside half an hour to let us ask questions. 他留出了半小时的时间让我们问一些问题。
  ② On this problem, we should set aside our personal feelings. 在这个问题上,我们应该抛开个人情绪。
  He assured us that he would be no better served by a fitness program than by learning to play bridge.
  译:他想让我相信,让他参加健身培训班和让他学打桥牌同样都是对他没有好处的。
  2.assure sb that/of 意思是让某人相信…、向某人做出承诺…。
  3.no better than 不比…好(多少);几乎等于。
  e.g.:His composition is no better than mine. 他的作文并不比我的好多少。
  no more than 不比…多;仅仅;同…一样(都不多)
  no less than 不比…少;不亚于;同…一样(都不少)
  no longer than 不再
  e.g.:(1)I could no more work out the difficult problem than you. 我和你一样解决不了那道难题。
  (2)She is no less active than she used to be. 她和过去一样活跃。
  (3)China today is no longer than China of the past. 今天的中国不再是从前的中国了。
  College and his preparation for a career were his only priorities. 他把上大学和准备干一番事业摆在了比一切都重要的位置。
  4.prepare for 为了…做准备
  preparation for 为了…做准备:使用其的时候:
  第一、其后面通常用复数形式;
  第二、当 preparation 前面需要用动词的时候,这个动词一般用 make
  e.g. He thinks that receiving education is the very important preparations for the future life.
  他认为受教育是为未来的生活所做的非常重要的准备。
  This student has seen being physically fit as an end rather than the means we know it to be. His opinion is one of the many feelings, pro or con, that people hold about their personal involvement in a physical fitness program.
  译:这个学生把拥有健康的身体看作是最终目标,而不像我们那样把身体健康当作工作学习的一种手段或工具。许多参加健身培训班的人都有着各种不同的感受,有的说好有的说坏,这位学生的意见是各种感受之一。
  5.see … as … 相当于 regard … as:把……看成……。
  6.pro or con 1.正面或反面的理由;2.赞成或反对
  For example:On the subject of emotion, many writers have written many books pro or con. 关于感情这个主题,许多作家已写了许多或赞成或反对的书。
  7.involvement in 介入,参与
  For example:The involvement in politics is usually regarded as a good way of promotion. 参与政治通常被认为是一种提拔/升的好方法。
  Many people, including college students of all ages, spend little time in pursuit of physical fitness.
  很多人,包括各种年龄的大学生,几乎不花时间去追求身体健康。
  including 是介词
  8.短语:in pursuit of 追求,寻求;同义词 be after/seek
  For example:I will be in pursuit of my happiness with all my efforts. 我将尽全力追求我的幸福。
  Certainly some of these individuals may have physical limitations that make activity extremely difficult, and others are engaged in time-consuming activities that until finished do not permit opportunities for recreation.
  译:当然,这些人中有些因为受到生理上的限制以致参加活动极为困难,还有些人从事着耗费时间的事务活动,以致只能等到忙完了这些事务才有可能去参加消遣活动锻炼锻炼。
  9.be engaged in/engage in 忙于;从事;参加
  engaged(a.)从事…的
  For example 1:He has been engaged in teaching for many years. 他已经执教数年了。
  For example 2:At college he often engaged in sports. 在大学时,他经常参加一些运动。
  However, what about the majority who could do much more but do so little? Does one of the following statements sound like you?
  译:但是,大多数人,本来可以多参加些锻炼活动,可是实际上却参加得很少。这些人又怎么样呢?下面这些论调中有哪一种听起来像是你说的呢?
  “I know it's important, but I just don't have time right now.”
  译:“我倒是知道身体健康很重要,不过我现在就是没有时间。”
  “I'm already fit, and with my schedule, I'll have no difficulty staying that way.”
  译:“我的身体已经很健康了,虽然我的时间表安排得很紧,但我要保持现在的健康还是没问题的。”
  10.have(no)difficulties(in)doing sth. 做某事有(无)困难
  For example:I have some difficulties(in)passing five courses one time. 一次通过五门功课对于我来说是有些困难的。
  “I should do more than I do, but I just don't have facilities and I don't get much support from others.”
  译:“我本来应该比我现在参加锻炼的次数更多一些,可是我没有那些健身设备,也没有别人对我多加支持。”
  “Exercise makes me feel terrible. Even when I shower, I get to my next class wet, and probably smelling like a locker room.”
  译:“锻炼使我觉得很不愉快。甚至淋浴以后赶到下一堂的课室中身上还是湿淋淋的,也许会让人闻到我身上的汗腥味好像是在更衣室里一样臭。”
  Unlike these people who have made no commitment to fitness, you may have made a commitment to a physical fitness program that might be rather narrow in scope. If one of the following comments fits you, perhaps you are failing to see the broader values of maintaining a high level of physical fitness.
  译:跟这些没有参加健身活动的人不同,你可能已经参加了健身培训班,但是这个培训班的培训范围可能相当狭窄。如果下列这些说法中有一种正适合你的情况,那也许你还不懂参加高水平的健身活动会对你有更大的价值。
  11.短语:make commitment to 承诺/献身于/投入;commitment on:对于…、关于…
  ① He made a commitment to his parents living with them after retirement.
  他对父母做出了一个承诺,退休后同他们一起生活。
  ② If you make no commitment to your work, you will get nothing.
  如果你没有投入到工作中,你将会一无所获。
  “Everyone in the dorm runs at night. That's why I run.”
  译:“我们宿舍里大家晚上都在跑步。所以我也跑步。”
  “For every 3,500 calories I can 'burn' during exercise, I'll lose a pound of fat. I have only 10 pounds more to drop before Christmas.”
  译:“在锻炼期间,我每'烧'掉3500卡路里,我就减少了一磅脂肪。在**节前我还要再减掉10磅重的脂肪。”
  drop:lose 去掉
  “This weekend will be cool and nice. Saturday looks like a good day for a personal record.”
  译:“这个周末天气将会又凉快又舒适。星期六看起来像是个创造个人记录的好日子。”
  “Some would say I have a fear of death. Heck, I just want to live a long time.”
  “有人会说我怕死。见鬼去吧。我只是想长寿。”
  If you see your own attitude represented by one of these comments, might you be shortsighted in your reason for valuing fitness? We would suggest that you reexamine your approach to fitness and its ability to positively influence other aspects of your life.
  译:如果你觉得上面的说法之一正是代表了你自己的态度,也许你参加健身运动的理由会有点儿目光短浅吧?我们建议您重新检查一下您对待健康的态度、重新检查一下身体健康对您生活的其它一些方面能有哪些好的影响。
  13.短语1:reason for … 的原因(理由等)
  ① Her reason for leaving home is poor grade. 她离家的原因是她糟糕的成绩
  ② That heavy rain is the reason for the flood. 这场水灾是那场大雨引起的。
  14.短语2:approach to 对于…的态度(方法等);
  同义表达:attitude to/toward
  For example:His approach to this problem is very clear. 他对这个问题的态度是非常明确的。
  Ask yourself, “What could I achieve if I were really in top physical condition?” Because fitness levels are easily observed and can be measured, you can quickly start to see the emerging person you are capable of becoming. Almost daily you can see progress and accomplishment.
  扪心自问:“倘若我的身体真的达到了最棒的状态,那么我能取得什么成就呢”?因为身体健康的水平是很容易观察到的、也能测出来,那么你很快就能看出来,你能够成为一个脱颖而出的人。几乎每天你都能看到你的进步和成就。
  emerging 脱颖而出的
  Keep in mind, however, that all people are different and some may progress faster than others. In the final analysis, we think that although fitness will not guarantee that you will live longer, it can help you enjoy the years you do live.
  但要记住,所有的人都是不同的,有些人可能比另外一些人进行得快一些。归根结底,虽然健康的体魄不会保证你一定会延长寿命,但是健康的体魄有助于你享受有生之年的欢乐。
  15.keep/bear…in mind 记住
  For example:You must keep/bear what your father said in mind. 你必须记住你父亲的话。
  Progress 在这里是动词,表示“取得进步”
  16.in the final/last analysis 用在段落或文章最后,用来总结,表示“归根结底”
  For example: In the final analysis, business is business. 归根结底,公事公办。
  三、Vocabulary Exercises
  Ⅰ。For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper form of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.
  1. misuse(v./n.)滥用、误用、虐待;
  use(n./v.)使用、运用;
  useful(a.)有用的;
  useless(a.)无用的;
  a. We should not misuse our natural resources.
  b. This expression has been actually used in modern Chinese literature.
  c. A TV station is absolutely useless without electricity.
  d. The book is particularly useful for foreign students.
  2. involve(v.)牵扯,涉及,影响
  involvement(n.)牵扯、涉及
  involved(a.)牵扯到的;不易懂的 complicated
  a. All the workers are/were involved in the strike.
  b. His involvement in the dispute led to many troubles.
  c. None of the students can analyze that involved sentence.
  d. The task involved much difficulty.
  3. commit(v.)使承担、使保证;
  commitment(n.)承担的义务、责任、承诺
  a. We can meet our present commitment in less time and with fewer men.
  b. He committed himself to the cause of revolution.
  c. We have made a commitment to pay our bill on time.
  4. accomplish(v.)完成;
  accomplished(a.)完成了的;有才艺的;
  accomplishment(n.)成就
  a. The young lady is a brilliantly accomplished singer.
  b. We tried to settle the dispute but accomplished nothing.
  c. It was a real accomplishment to carry out the railway project in a month.
  Ⅱ。Fill in the following blank with the words listed below in their proper forms.
  Fitness  assure  pursuit  schedule  time-consuming
  Comment  shortsighted     aspect   emerge  scope
  1. What the editorial said on this subject was beyond the scope of my understanding.
  2. To kill the hen to get the eggs is shortsighted.
  3. The police car raced through the streets in pursuit of another car.
  4. The doctor assured us of the safety of the operation.
  5. Many facts emerged as a result of the investigation.
  6. To calculate the cost of building a new laboratory is time-consuming.
  7. Fitness programs are becoming more and more popular in China.
  8. HHave you any comments to make on my book A Complete Collection of Chinese Proverbs?
  9. The strike will begin on schedule.
  10. The experts studied every aspect of the subject.
  Text B People and Colors
  一、New Words
  1.前缀单词
  1)refreshing(a.)使精力恢复的,使人清爽的
  2)react(vi.)1.反应,起作用;2.起反作用(against)
  2.后缀单词
  1)society(n.)社会;social(a.)社会的;
  sociable(a.)1.好交际的;2.友善的
  2)energetic(a.)有力的,精力旺盛的;energy(n.)精力,精神
  3)cheerful(a.)快乐的,高兴的
  4)happiness(n.)1.幸福;2.愉快
  5)unhappiness(n.)1.不幸福,不快乐;2.不幸,不祥
  6)darkness(n.)1.黑暗;2.晦暗
  7)loneliness(n.)孤独,**
  lonely(a.)孤独的,**的;alone(a.)独自一人的
  For example:Although I am alone, I am not lonely. 虽然我独身一人,但是我从不**。
  8)manufacture(vt.)制造,加工
  (n.)1.制造,制造业;2.产品
  manufacturer(n.)制造商,厂商
  9)dignified(a.)可敬的,高贵的
  10)generalize(vt.)1.归纳,概括出,从…引出一般结论;2.推广
  3.合成词
  1)businessman(n.)商人
  4.含有颜色的单词
  1)violet(n.)1.紫罗兰;2.紫罗兰色;
  (a.)紫罗兰色的
  2)purple(n.)紫色,紫红色;
  (a.)紫色的
  3)pink(a.)粉红色的,桃红色的;
  (n.)粉红色,桃红色
  5.表示节假日的单词
  1)Valentine's Day(= Saint Valentine's Day)(n.)情人节(2月14日)
  2)Halloween(n.)(西方风俗)万圣节前夕(指10月31日,这一夜儿童可**玩闹)
  3)Thanksgiving Day(n.)感恩节(美国和加拿大的例假日,在美国是11月的第四个星期四,在加拿大是10月的第二个星期一)
  4)Easter Sunday(= Easter Day, Easter)(n.)复活节(在3月20日或该日后月圆以后第一个星期日)
  6.表示军队
  navy(n.)海军;army 陆军;air force 空军
  7.需要注意的单词
  1)caution(n.)1.小心,谨慎;2.告诫,警告;
  (vt.)告诫,警告
  同义词:warn (v.);warning(n.)
  warn sb not to do sth 警告某人不要做某事
  caution sb not to do sth 警告某人不要做某事
  For example:The teacher cautioned the student not to cheat on exams. 老师警告那个学生以后考试不要作弊。
  2)manufacture(vt.)制造,加工;
  (n.)1.制造,制造业;2.产品
  同义词:make;produce
  3)generalize(vt.)1.归纳,概括出,从…引出一般结论;2.推广
  For example:After reading, you should generalize the main idea of this article. 读过之后,你应当概括一下这篇文章的大意。
  8.Phrases Expressions
  to remind … of 使 … 想起 …
  For example:The song reminds me of my childhood. 这首歌让我想起了我的童年。
  to react to 1.对…做出反应;2.因受影响而改变行动
  For example:He immediately reacted to the matter. 他很快就对那个问题做出了回应。
  二、Text B
  People and Colors(不同的人与不同的颜色)
  One person chooses a bright red car, but another prefers a dark green. One family paints the living room a sunny yellow, but another family uses pure white. One child wants a bright orange ball, but another wants a light blue one. Psychologists and businessmen think these differences are important.
  一个人选择鲜红色的小轿车,而另一个人则宁可要墨绿色的。一户人家把客厅粉刷成金黄色,而另一户人家则使用纯白色。一个孩子要鲜橙色的球,而另一个孩子则要浅蓝色的。心理学家和商人们认为这些差别是很重要的。
  prefer:(vt.)更喜欢
  In general, people talk about two groups of colors: warm colors and cool colors. Researchers think that there are also two groups of people: people who prefer warm colors and people who prefer cool colors.
  总的来说,人们谈论的是两大类颜色:暖色和冷色。研究人员认为世人也有两大类:喜欢暖色的人和喜欢冷色的人。
  in general = generally(speaking)通常,大体上,一般来说
  The warm colors are red, orange, and yellow. Where there are warm colors and a lot of light, people usually want to be active. People think that red, for example, is exciting. Sociable people, those who like to be with others, like red. The cool colors are green, blue, and violet. These colors, unlike warm colors, are relaxing. Where there are cool colors, people are usually quiet. People who like to spend time alone often prefer blue.
  红、橙、黄是暖色。凡有暖色并有充足光线的地方,人们通常想要积极活动。例如,人们认为红色会使人心潮激动。喜欢社交的人,喜欢和他人在一起的人都喜欢红色。绿、蓝、紫都是冷色。冷色与暖色不同,它们会使人放松。在冷色环境里,人们通常都很安静。凡是喜欢独自一人度过时光的人都喜欢蓝色。
  Red may be exciting, but one researcher says that time seems to pass more slowly in a room with warm colors than in a room with cool colors. He suggests that a warm color, such as red or orange, is a good color for a living room or restaurant. People who are relaxing or eating do not want time to pass quickly. Cool colors are better for offices or factories if the people who are working there want time to pass quickly.
  红色会令人激动兴奋,不过某研究人员表示,人在暖色房间里似乎会觉得比在冷色房间里时间过得慢。这位研究人员认为,红、橙之类的暖色适用于客厅和饭店。凡是休闲或进餐的人都不希望时间过得很快。如果人们在办公室或工厂上班,都希望时间过得很快,那么把环境弄成冷色就比较好。
  Researchers do not know why people think some colors are warm and other colors are cool. However, almost everyone agrees that red, orange, and yellow are warm and that green, blue, and violet are cool. Perhaps warm colors remind people of warm days and the cool colors remind them of cool days. Because in the north the sun is low during winter, the sunlight appears quite blue. Because the sun is higher during summer, the hot summer sunlight appears yellow.
  研究人员现在还都不知道,为什么人们认为有些颜色是暖的,而另外一些颜色是冷的。但是几乎人人都承认红、橙、黄是暖色,而绿、蓝、紫是冷色。也许暖色能使人们想起温暖的日子,而冷色使人想起冷的日子。因为在北方冬季太阳低,使人觉得似乎阳光有点发蓝,而在炎热的夏季太阳高一些,令人觉得阳光似乎是黄色的。
  短语:remind sb of sth 让某人想到了……
  单词:appear:出现、显现或者显出…、好像…
  People associate colors with different objects, feelings, and holidays. Red, for example, is the color of fire, heat, blood, and life.
  人们把不同的颜色和不同的事物、不同的感觉、不同的节日联系在一起。例如,红色是火、热、鲜血和生命的颜色。
  短语:associate … with … 把……和……联系起来
  People say red is an exciting and active color. They associate red with a strong feeling like anger. Red is used for signs of danger, such as STOP signs and fire engines. The holiday which is associated with red is Valentine's Day. On February 14, Americans send red hearts to people they love.
  人们说红色是令人激动和积极的颜色。人们把红色同愤怒这种强烈的感情联系在一起,红色被用作危险的信号,例如,停止的标志、救火车的标志。跟红色联系在一起的节日是情人节。在每年2月14日,美国人都给他们所爱的人纷纷寄送红心。
  Orange is the bright, warm color of leaves in autumn. People say orange is a lively, energetic color. They associate orange with happiness. The holidays which are associated with orange are Halloween in October and Thanksgiving Day in November. On October 31 many Americans put large orange pumpkins in their windows for Halloween.
  橙色是秋天叶子的鲜暖色。人们说橙色是充满生机的积极向上的颜色。人们把橙色和幸福快乐联系在一起。与橙色有联系的两个节日是10月份的万圣节和11月份的感恩节。在10月31日很多美国人把橙色的南瓜灯摆在窗户上来欢度万圣节。
  Yellow is the color of sunlight. People say it is a cheerful and lively color. They associate yellow, too, with happiness. Because it is bright, it is used for signs of caution.
  黄色是阳光的颜色。人们说黄色是一种欢快的充满生机的颜色。人们也把黄色和幸福快乐联系在一起。因为黄色鲜艳,黄色也被用作警告的标志。
  Green is the cool color of grass in spring. People say it is a refreshing and relaxing color. Machines in factories are usually painted light green.
  绿色是冷色,是春季草坪的颜色。人们说,绿色使人觉得大地回春万象更新,是一种使人心旷神怡的颜色。工厂的机器大多被漆成嫩绿色。
  Blue is the color of the sky, water, and ice. Police and Navy uniforms are blue. When people are sad, they say “I feel blue.” They associate blue with feelings like unhappiness and fear.
  蓝色是天空、水和冰的颜色。警察和海军的制服都是蓝色的。当人们感到悲伤时,会说“I feel blue”(我觉得很沮丧)。人们把不愉快和恐惧之类的感觉同蓝色联系在一起。
  Violet, or purple, is the deep, soft color of darkness or shadows. People consider violet a dignified color. They associate it with loneliness. On Easter Sunday people decorate baskets with purple ribbons.
  紫罗兰色,或者说紫色,是阴暗、深沉、轻柔的颜色。人们认为紫罗兰色是一种高贵庄严的颜色。人们把它与孤独联系在一起。复活节时,人们用紫色的丝带装饰篮子。
  White is the color of snow. People describe white as a pure, clean color. They associate white with a bright clean feeling. Doctors and nurses normally wear white uniforms. On the other hand, black is the color of night. People wear black clothes at serious or formal ceremonies.
  白色是雪的颜色。人们把白色描绘成纯洁干净的颜色。人们把白色同明快纯洁的感觉联系在一起。医生和护士通常都穿白色的制服。与此相反,黑色是黑夜的颜色。人们在庄严而正式的仪式上都穿黑色服装。
  Businessmen know that people choose products by color. Businessmen want to manufacture products which are the colors people will buy. Fox example, an automobile manufacturer needs to know how many cars to paint red, how many green, and how many black. Good businessmen know that young people prefer different colors than old people do and men prefer different colors than women do.
  商人们都懂得人们是按颜色来选购商品的。厂商们都想要生产出人们愿意去购买的颜色的产品。例如,汽车生产商需要知道有多少汽车要喷成红色,多少喷成绿色,多少喷成黑色。有经验的商人们都知道年轻人跟老年人比起来,更喜欢多种多样的颜色。男人跟女人比,男人更喜欢多种不同的颜色。
  Young children react to the color of an object before they react to its shape. They prefer the warm colors - red, yellow, and orange. When people grow older, they begin to react more to the shape of an object than to its color. The favorite color of adults of all countries is blue. Their second favorite color is red, and their third is green.
  孩子对一件物品的颜色先做出反应后,才会对物品的形状做出反应。孩子喜欢暖色——红、黄、橙。随着年龄的增长,人们会对物品形状的反应多于对物品颜色的反应。所有国家的成年人最喜欢的颜色是蓝色,第二种喜欢的颜色是红色,第三种喜欢的颜色是绿色。
  On the whole, women prefer brighter colors than men do. Almost everyone likes red, but women like yellow and green more than men do. Pink is usually considered a feminine color. Blue is usually considered a masculine color.
  大体上,妇女比男人更喜欢鲜艳的颜色。几乎每个人都喜欢红色。但是,女人和男人比起来,女人更喜欢黄色和绿色。粉红色通常被认为是女性的颜色。蓝色通常被认为是男性的颜色。
  固定短语:on the whole 大体上,基本上;相当于 in general.
  As a result, people dress baby girls in pink and baby boys in blue. However, it is dangerous to generalize because taste changes. For example, years ago businessmen wore only white shirts; today they wear many different colors, including pink.
  因此,人们总是给女婴穿戴粉红色,给男婴穿戴蓝色。但是,一律都这样办可就危险了,因为人的品味是会变化的。例如,几年前职场中人只穿白衬衫,可是如今他们却穿着五颜六色的衬衫,甚至还穿粉色衬衫。
  短语:as a result(of)结果
  For example:As a result of the accident, he had been in hospital for three years. 由于那次事故,他住了三年医院。
  dress sb(oneself) 给某人(自己)穿……;
  dress sb in  (color)给…穿…(什么颜色的衣服)。
  wear/put on:表示“穿”,通常强调的是行为动作
  If two objects are the same except for color, they will look different. Color can make an object look nearer or farther, larger or smaller. A red object always looks nearer than a blue object. For example, red letters on a blue sign look as though they are in front of the sign.
  如果两件东西除了颜色不同以外都相同,那么这两件东西看起来就不同。颜色能使物品看起来好像较近或较远,较大或较小。一件红色的东西看起来总是比一件蓝色的东西近一些。例如,一块蓝底招牌上的红字看起来就好像红字是在招牌前面似的。
  except for;except
  as though 似乎、好像 = as if
  Bright objects look larger than dark objects. However, they are actually the same size. Large or fat people who want to look smaller or slimmer wear dark clothes. When they wear dark clothes, they look smaller and slimmer than they are.
  颜色鲜艳的物品看上去就比色调发暗的物品好像大一些似的,但实际上他们的大小是一样的。大个子或肥胖的人,如果想让人看起来瘦小点儿、苗条点儿,就应穿暗色的衣服。如果这些大个子、胖人穿上黑衣服,那么他们看起来就要比他们实际瘦小一些、苗条一些。
  In conclusion, color is very important to people. Warm and cool colors affect how people feel. People choose products by color. Moreover, color affects how an object looks. It is even possible that your favorite color tells a lot about you.
  由此可以得出结论,颜色对人们是很重要的。暖色和冷色都会影响到人的感觉。人们是根据颜色挑选产品的,更重要的是,颜色影响到一个物体的外观,甚至可以根据你所喜欢的颜色了解到有关你本人的许多情况。
  In conclusion 综上所述、总之
  三、Vocabulary Exercises
  Choose the most proper words and expressions from the vocabulary list to complete the following sentences. The first letter is already given.
  1. I don't feel energetic enough. I must take some recreation to refresh myself.
  2. A sign with“Danger”on it is a caution.
  3. Henry Ford, the American motor - car manufacturer, was the first to make mass-production of cars possible.
  4. One cannot generalize from a few examples.
  5. He is very slim, being six feet tall and weighing only 130 pounds.
  6. The rooms looked like new after they had been decorated.
  7. Discipline was relaxed on the last day of school.
  8. If you give the old table two coats of paint, it won't show so badly.
  coat: 层
  9. The audience reacted warmly to his speech.
  10. They are a sociable family and entertain a great deal.
  要点概述:
  1.核心词汇
  assure;pursuit;commitment;maintain;approach;sociable;caution;react;generalize.
  2.核心短语
  to set aside;in pursuit of;to make commitment to;approach to;to keep(或 to bear)… in mind;remind of
  3.结构方面
  1.have(no)difficulty(in)doing:做某事有(没有)困难
  注意后面用的是动词的 ing 形式。
  2.see as = regard as 把…看作…、把…当成…。
  For example:Many children see their fathers as great men. 很多孩子视自己的父亲为伟人。
  3.suggest 后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气的情况一定要**:第一、suggest 是建议的意思;第二、后面跟宾语从句。
  虚拟语气中谓语是 should  动词原形或者是省略should直接用动词原形。
  4.本单元中复习了分词和定语从句在句子中做定语时的情况。


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发表于:2009-09-29 17:24:17
09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit23)  Text A Non - verbal Communication
  一、New Words
  1.前缀单词
  1)non - verbal(a.) 非词语的,非语言的
  verbal 言语的,言词的;non 不……,非……。
  2)dislike(vt./n.) 不喜爱,厌恶
  2.后缀单词
  1)listener(n.) 听者,收听者
  writer(n.) 作者、作家
  manager(n.) 1.经理;2.管理人
  2)European(a.) 1.欧洲的;2.欧洲人的
  (n.) 欧洲人
  an 结尾表示“人”的单词:American,Italian
  3)approve(v.) 批准、通过、赞成
  approval(n.) 1.批准,通过;2.赞成,同意
  arrive/arrival 与以上两个词的构词方式一样。
  4)reaction(n.) 1.反应(力),反作用(力);2.反动,对抗
  5)appearance(n.) 1.出现,露面;2.外观,外表
  6)closeness(n.) 1.紧密;2.严密,精密
  7)tenseness(n.) 紧张;绷紧
  intense(a.) 强烈的、紧张的
  8)embarrassment(n.) 1.窘迫;2.使人为难的事
  9)culture(n.) 文化
  cultural(a.) 1.文化的;2.栽培的,培养的
  10)invasion(n.) 入侵,侵略
  invade(v.) 侵略、入侵
  11)nervous(a.) 1.神经系统的;2.神经紧张的
  nerve(n.) 神经
  12)casually(ad.) 1.偶然地,碰巧地;2.漫不经心地,随便地
  英文意思就是 “by chance”
  3.核心单词
  1)oral(a.) 口头的,口的
  For example:Oral English 英语口语
  2)frown(vi.) 1.皱眉;2.不满,用皱眉对…表示不满( at)
  For example:He is frowning at those words on the wall. 他对写在墙上的这些字直皱眉头。
  3)staff([复]staffs)(n.) 1.全体职工,全体人员;2.参谋部
  (vt.) 为…配备工作人员
  如果要表述某一个整体中的具体的某一个人,应该是“staff member”,某几个成员“staff members”。
  For example 1:The school's teaching staff is excellent. 这个学校的教职员工是非常出色的。
  For example 2:Five staff members went to discuss their working conditions with the manager. 有五位职工去和经理讨论他们的工作条件。
  4)appearance(n.) 1.出现,露面;2.外观,外表;
  →反义词:disappearance(失踪)
  appear(v.)
  →反义词:disappear(消失)
  For example:The lion's appearance in the village cause great panic. 这头狮子在这个村庄的出现导致了非常大的恐慌。
  5)control(vt./n.) 1.控制,支配;2.克制,抑制
  in control of 控制了……
  out of control 脱离了控制,意思是已经不受控制了,也可以用 beyond control
  under control 处于控制之下
  6)false(a.) 1.假的,伪造的;2.不真实的,错误的;
  反义词:true
  wrong(错的)←→ right(正确的)但是这两个词没有真假的意思。
  7)confess(vt./vi.) 1.承认;2.坦白,供认
  4.Phrases and Expressions
  1)for short 简称,缩写
  For example:We are talking about National Basketball Association, NBA for short. 我们正在谈论国家篮球协会,缩写是 NBA.
  2)to fiddle with 1.摆弄,玩弄;2.弄虚作假
  For example:As a accountant you should not fiddle with accounts. 作为一名财会人员,你不应当篡改账目。
  3)to lack in 在…方面缺乏
  For example:The young always lack in experience. 年轻人经常是缺乏经验。
  4)and so on/and so forth/etc 等等
  For example:My mother bought many vegetables from the market such as potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages, and so on. 我妈妈在市场上买了很多蔬菜,比如土豆、西红柿、卷心菜等等。
  5)So far 迄今为止,就此范围(或程度等)来说
  So far 相当于 by now
  For example:She is the hardest student I have seen so far. 到目前为止,她是我所见到的最用功的学生。
  6)In fact 实际上
  7)As the saying goes 正如俗语所说
  For example:As the saying goes don't try to run before you can walk. 正像俗话所说的,在你学会走路之前不要想着去跑。(你还没有具备那样的能力,就不要硬逞能。)
  8)To speak volumes 含义很深,很有意义
  For example:What the speaker said at the end of the lecture speaks volumes. 那个演讲人在他演讲的最后所说的话非常地富有含义。
  二、Text A
  Non - verbal Communication(非语言文字的交流)
  If anyone asked you what were the main means of communication between people, what would you say? That isn't a catch question.
  译:假如现在有个人问你,什么是人与人之间的主要交流手段,那么你会说什么?这并不是一个能把人难住了的问题。
  1.catch 做动词表示“抓住、赶上”,在这儿 catch 是一个名词,意思是 hard to answer,“难以回答的”。
  The answer is simple and obvious. It would almost certainly refer to means of communication that involve the use of words.
  译:答案简单而又明确。几乎可以肯定,它指的就是用语言文字作为交流手段。
  2.refer to:指的是。
  Speakers and listeners - oral communication, and writers and readers - written communication. And you'd be quite right. There is, however, another form of communication which we all use most of the time, usually without knowing it. This is sometimes called body language. Its more technical name is non - verbal communication. Non - verbal, because it does not involve the use of words. NVC for short.
  译:讲话的人和听讲的人用口语进行交流,而作家与读者用书面文字进行交流。对了,你答得相当正确。但是,还有一种交流方式是我们大家在不知不觉的大部分时间都在使用的,我们有时称它为身体语言。身体语言的更加专业化的名称就是非语言交流。之所以称为非语言文字的,就是因为这种交流是不用语言文字进行的。缩写是NVC.
  When someone is saying something with which he agrees, the average European will smile and nod approval. On the other hand, if you disagree with what they are saying, you may frown and shake your head. In this way you signal your reactions, and communicate them to the speaker without saying a word.
  译:当某人谈了某件事,大多数的欧洲人若是同意他所说的事,就会微笑并点头表示同意。相反,若是这个欧洲人不同意他们所说的事,那么就可能皱眉并摇摇头。用这种方式你表示了对他们所说的事情的反应,你一句话也没说就把你的反应传达给了跟你讲话的人。
  3.average(n./a.) 这里做名词,意思是一般的。
  4.signal n.信号;v.用信号通知、用信号传达、用动作示意。
  For example:He signaled me to sit down. 他示意我坐下来。
  I referred a moment ago to “the average European”, because body language is very much tied to culture, and in order not to misunderstand, or not to be misunderstood, you must realize this. A smiling Chinese, for instance, may not be approving but somewhat embarrassed.
  译:我刚才提到的是“绝大多数欧洲人”,因为身体语言与文化习俗有很大的联系。为了不致误解别人或为了不被别人误解,你必须意识到这一点。例如,一位华人在微笑时很可能并不表示同意,而是有点不好意思。
  5.tie——n.领带;v.系、关联;常用短语:be tied to = be connected with 和……有关联、和……有关系。
  Quite a lot of work is now being done on the subject of NVC, which is obviously important, for instance, to managers, who have to deal every day with their staff, and have to understand what other people are feeling if they are to create good working conditions.
  译:关于“非语言文字的交流”这一课题我们现在正进行相当大量的研究。这一研究课题,比如对于经理、总管之类的人员来讲,很显然是重要的。经理人员每天都必须同员工们打交道,他们必须明白,如果能创造出一个良好的工作环境,那么别人都会有什么感觉。
  6.be being  动词过去分词:现在进行时的被动结构。
  7.deal with  sth 意思是“处理……事情”;
  deal with  sb 意思是“跟某人打交道”。
  be to do 表示已经计划好了,已经决定将要做什么事情。
  Body language, or NVC signals, are sometimes categorised into five kinds: 1. body and facial gestures; 2. eye contact; 3. Body contact or “proximity”; 4. clothing and physical appearance; and 5. the quality of speech. I expect you understood all those, except perhaps “proximity.” This simply means “closeness”。
  译:有时可以把身体语言,或者叫非语言文字的交流,分成五大类:(1)身体的姿态和面部表情;(2)目光的接触;(3)身体的接触或者“亲近度”;(4)衣着打扮和天生的长相;(5)讲话的质量。我想,也许除了“亲近度”而外,这一切你都明白。它就是讲“亲近到什么程度”。
  In some cultures - and I am sure this is a cultural feature and not an individual one - it is quite normal for people to stand close together, or to more or less thrust their face into yours when they are talking to you. In other cultures, this is disliked; Americans, for instance, talk about invasion of their space.
  译:在某些文化习俗当中——我敢肯定这是某一民族的风俗文化的特征,而不是某一个人的习惯特征——当人们在跟你谈话时,跟你站得很近或者或多或少地把脸贴近了你的脸,这都是十分正常的。而在另外一些民族的文化习俗当中,这样做是人们所不喜欢的。例如,美国人认为你侵犯了他们的私人空间。
  8.more or less 或多或少;
  Some signals are probably common to all of us. If a public speaker (like a professor, for example)is all the time fiddling with a pencil, or with his glasses, while he is talking to you, he is telling you quite clearly that he is nervous. A person who holds a hand over his mouth when he is talking is signaling that he is lacking in confidence. If you start wriggling in your chairs, looking secretly at your watches or yawning behind your hands, I shall soon get the message that I'm boring you. And so on. I'm sure you could make a whole list of such signals - and it might be fun if you did.
  译:也许有些信号是我们大家所共有的。如果一位演讲者(比如一位教授),在给你们作报告时,总是摆弄一支铅笔或者他的眼镜,那么,他这是很清楚地告诉你,他心情很紧张。一个人如果在谈话时总是用一只手捂着嘴,这就表明他缺乏自信。如果你们开始不能安稳地坐在椅子上,开始偷偷地不时看看钟表,或者你们开始用手捂住嘴打哈欠,那么,我将会马上得到一个信息,那就是我使你们感到厌倦了。如此等等。我敢肯定你们会把这类感到厌倦的信号列出一整张纸来——如果你们现在就写的话,可能会很有趣。
  9.make a list(of)罗列(罗列什么东西);list 自身可以做动词“罗列”
  For example:Make a list of the books.
  it might be fun if you did 是与现在相反的虚拟语气
  All the signals I have mentioned so far can be controlled. If you are aware that you are doing these things, you can stop. You can even learn to give false signals. Most public speakers are in fact nervous, but a good speaker learns to hide this by giving off signals of confidence.
  译:我上面所提到的这些信号都是人们可以控制的。如果你意识到了你正在做那些小动作,你就会停止不做了。甚至你们还能学会发出虚假的信号。事实上绝大多数公开发表演讲的人都心情紧张,但是一位擅长演讲的人会发出自信心很强的信号来掩饰紧张的心情。
  10.mention = speak of 表示提及到的、说到的、说过的;
  so far 到目前为止;
  be aware that 意识到、知道;
  in fact 事实上,实际上;
  11.by giving off 通过发出(虚假信号)。
  Other kinds of NVC are not so easy to control. Eye contact, for instance. Unless you are confessing intense love, you hardly ever look into someone else's eyes for very long. If you try it, you'll find they will soon look away, probably in embarrassment.
  译:另外几种非语言文字的交流就不是很容易控制的了。比如说目光接触吧。除非你坦白承认你深深爱上了她,要不然的话你就不会长时间地凝视着她的眼睛。如果你将来试一试凝视她的眼睛,你就会发现她会扭转头把眼睛挪开看其它地方,也许是出于难为情吧。
  I've already mentioned proximity, so just a brief word now about our last two categories, which concern the way people dress and the way they speak. These are both pretty obvious signals. People may dress casually and speak casually, which signals that they are relaxed. Or they can dress formally and speak formally, showing their tenseness. In fact, non-verbal communication can, as the saying goes, speak volumes.
  译:我上面已经把“亲近度”解释过了。现在用简明扼要的话讲讲最后两大类语言文字交流信号。这两类涉及到人们穿着的方式和讲话的方式。这两类都是很明显的交流信号。穿着随随便便而讲话又漫不经心,说明这些人的心情很轻松。如果人们穿得整整齐齐,讲起话来一本正经,这表明他们的心情很紧张很不轻松。事实上,非语言文字的交流,正如俗话所说的那样,含义是很深的。
  12.pretty(a.)意思是 beautiful;在文中是副词,意思是 quite、very 非常、十分。
  三、Vocabulary Exercises
  Ⅰ。For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper forms of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.
  1. embarrass(v.) 窘迫、为难
  embarrassing(a.) 使……为难;使……窘迫;通常修饰没有动作执行能力的事物。
  embarrassed(a.) 为难的,感到很为难的,通常做表语或者定语,修饰有动作执行能力的人。
  embarrassment(n.) 窘迫
  a. I often feel embarrassed in the presence of strangers.
  b. The little girl raised a rather embarrassing question.
  c. You can't imagine my embarrassment at having forgotten her name.
  d. The modern child embarrasses less easily than 50 years ago.
  2. close(a.) close(v.) closeness(n.) closed(a.)
  a. She made a close study of the relationship between culture and language.
  b. The bank has decided to close its New York branch.
  c. A sphere is a closed surface of figure.
  d. In some countries more eye contact implies more closeness of relationship.
  3. approve(v.) approval(n.) disapprove(v.) disapproval(n.)
  a. We all like others to show approval of what we do.
  b. He shook his head in disapproval.
  c. The government has approved the financial program for the coming year.
  d. I strongly disapprove of your program.
  4. appearance disappear appear disappearance
  a. The appearance of the old gray house made us think that it was empty.
  b. The advertisement didn't appear in yesterday's New York Times.
  c. The disappearance of the airplane brought about a search of the area.
  d. The truck disappeared into the night.
  5. tense(v.) 拉紧,使紧张;
  (a.)紧张的,绷紧的。
  intense(a.) 热烈的,强烈的,一般表示程度,有的时候也可以表示紧张的
  tenseness(n.) 绷紧、紧张
  intensity(n.) 思想或感情上的强烈、剧烈、激烈
  a. A bad burn causes intense pain.
  b. The heat continues with increased intensity.
  c. His muscles tensed when he heard the bad news.
  d. One must learn to hide one's tenseness when speaking in public.
  Ⅱ。 Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.
  non-verbal   staff   approval   appearance
  dislike     confess  control    brief
  casually    oral
  1. The boy confessed that he had broken the vase.
  2. The plane suddenly went out of control.
  3. The old man dislikes his wife although they have been married for thirty years.
  4. The young lady is making her first appearance at the party.
  5. The headmaster and his staff should all speak at the meeting.
  6. Do you know how to practice oral English?
  7. The professor made a brief introduction to his research.
  8. Art, like gesture, is a form of non-verbal expression.
  9. The father expressed his approval of what the son did.
  10. He only casually put in a remark when we talked about the matter.
  Text B Body Talk
  一、New Words
  1.前缀单词
  1)interaction(n.)相互作用,相互影响
  2)subconsciously(ad.)下意识地,潜意识地
  3)submissiveness(n.)服从,顺从
  2.后缀单词
  1)liking(n.)喜欢,爱好
  2)considerable(a.)1.值得考虑的,重要的;2.相当大或多的
  3)provocative(a.)1.挑衅的,**的;2.引起争论(或议论,兴趣等)的
  4)repeatedly(ad.)反复地
  5)hostile(a.)1.敌对的;2.不友善的,敌意的
  hostility(n.)敌意,敌视
  6)insistently(ad.)坚持地
  7)directness(n.)1.直接;2.直截了当,直率
  8)sincerity(n.)真诚
  sincere(a.)真诚的
  1)friendliness(n.)友好
  2)warmth(n.)1.暖和,温暖;2.热烈,热情
  3)emotion(n.)1.激动;2.情感,情绪
  emotional(a.)感情的,情感的,感情上的
  4)satisfying(a.)令人满意的,使人**的
  For example:a satisfying speech. 一个令人满意的演讲。
  satisfied(a.)(人的感受上的)满意、**
  For example:My father is satisfied with my study. 我的父亲对我的学业比较满意。
  5)lover(n.)1.情人;2.爱好者
  For example: book lover 爱书的人
  6)fascinating(a.)迷人的,**夺魄的
  3.核心单词
  1)considerable(a.)1.值得考虑的,重要的;2.相当大或多的
  2)consider(vt.)1.考虑,细想;2.认为,把…看作
  (vi.)考虑,细想
  3)bare(a.)1.赤裸的,光秃的;2.无遮蔽的,无掩护的;3.仅仅的,勉强的
  4.Phrases and Expressions
  1)to take a liking to(for)爱好,喜欢
  For example:He has a great liking for Chinese green tea. 他特别爱喝中国的绿茶。
  2)to worry about 焦虑,不安,烦恼
  For example:He has been out of home for three months, so his mother worries about his safety very much. 他已经离家三个多月了,他的母亲非常担心他的安全。
  3)apart from 除去,撇开,除…之外
  For example:Apart from the cost of living his university life is quite good. 除了生活费用,他的大学生活还是过得相当不错的。
  4)to complain of/about 抱怨,发牢骚,诉苦
  For example:Don't always complain of the others. 不要总是抱怨其他人。
  5)to let alone 1.不管,不弄;2.更不用
  For example:When a child is crying you should let it alone or he will cry more loudly. 当一个孩子哭的时候,你不要理他,否则他会哭得更大声。
  6)at times 有时候 = sometimes
  7)to take note of 注意,留意
  For example:When you make experiments in the laboratory, you should take note of the changes.当你在实验室做实验的时候,你应当注意所发生的变化。
  二、Text B
  Body Talk(身体语言)
  Have you ever wondered why you sometimes take an almost immediate liking to a person you have just met? Or worried about why someone you were talking to suddenly became cool and distant? The chances are that it wasn't anything that was said but something that happened: a gesture, a movement, a smile.
  你有没有想过为什么有时你刚刚见到了一个人,就会立刻喜欢上这个人?或者你有没有因为一位正在跟你谈话的人突然态度变得很冷而又疏远,这使你心情感到焦虑不安?这很可能并不是因为你说错了什么话,而是因为你的一个手势、一个小动作、一个微笑引起的。
  take a liking to 喜欢
  1.The chances are that … 可能性
  Social scientists are now devoting considerable attention to “non-verbal communication,” what happens when people get together, apart from their actual conversation.
  社会科学家们现在特别注意“非语言文字的交流”,即当人们在一起时,除了人们实际上所谈的话而外所发生的事情。
  2.devote … to 投身于……,献身于……
  what 引导同位语从句,做 non - verbal communication 的同位语
  Professor Erving Goffman of the University of Pennsylvania is involved in a continuing study of the way people behave in social interaction. He feels that gestures, movements and physical closeness have meaning which the words that the people are using do not carry.
  宾夕法尼亚州立大学欧文·高夫曼教授一直不断地在研究社会中人们行为的方式。他认为每个手势、每个动作和身体亲近的程度都有着人们的语言所表达不出来的意义。
  3.be involved in 涉及到,投身于,牵扯进去
  The closeness of two people when talking, movement towards and away from each other, and the amount of eye contact all reveal something about the nature of the relationship between the two individuals. We tend to be only subconsciously aware, if at all, of the various patterns and rituals of social behavior. We expect other people to act according to the same “rules” that we do, so much so that the manners and behavior of persons from another culture can be extremely confusing.
  交谈着的两个人的亲密程度,动作上的互相接近或疏远以及两个人目光接触的次数及接触时间的长短,所有这一切都能表明两人之间是哪一种关系。一般我们对社会行为的种种规范和礼仪,即使知道该怎么做,也常常是通过下意识才意识到的。我们期待着其他民族也按着我们做事的同样的“规矩”办事,以致于来自其他民族文化的人们的待人处事的态度和行为举止可能会令我们感到极端地困惑和不理解。
  4.if at all 即使、假如
  “rules” that we do 中 do 表示遵守
  5.so much so that 表示结果
  Fox example, North Americans tend to expect more physical distance between two speakers than do Latin Americans. Consequently, when the Latin American seems to be leaning too close, the North American complains of “invasion of his space.” The Latin American, on the other hand, often considers the North American to be “cold” or “distant” because he keeps a greater distance between himself and the person he is speaking to.
  例如,北美洲的人和拉丁美洲的人比较起来,北美洲的人希望两个谈话人之间的距离稍大一点。因而,当拉丁美洲的人似乎把身子凑得离谈话对方很近的时候,北美洲的人就会抱怨说你“侵犯了他的私人空间”。相反,拉丁美洲的人经常认为北美洲的人待人都很“冷淡”或“疏远”,因为北美洲人自己总是跟谈话对方之间要保持较大的距离。
  Eye contact is one way of measuring the degree of closeness of relationship between two speakers, although there are cultural variations in the meaning of eye contact. In the Middle East, for example, it is considered extremely provocative for a woman to let a man catch her eye, let alone return his gaze. Social psychologist Michael Argyle observes that there is more eye contact between people who like each other than those who are indifferent or hostile towards each other.
  尽管在不同的民族文化中目光接触的意义有所不同,但目光接触是衡量两个谈话人之间关系亲密程度的一个标准。例如,在中东,如果一位妇女惹得一个男子的注目,就被认为是带有极端的**调情的性质,更不用说回眸再去凝视那个男人了。社会心理学家迈克·阿吉尔觉察两个互相喜欢对方的人看对方的次数和时间,要比两个互相冷漠甚至敌视的人互相看对方的次数和时间要多。
  6.catch one's eyes 引起某人的注意,文中是盯某人的眼睛
  7.be indifferent to 冷漠的
  be hostile to 敌对的、敌意的
  And the longer the length of the gaze, the more likely it is that the listener is more interested in the person who is speaking, than the actual topic of conversation. Frequently looking down can indicate submissiveness or embarrassment. Looking away repeatedly may express boredom or dislike. Women tend to engage in more eye contact than men, especially when talking to other women.
  听话的人若是凝视讲话的人的时间越长,越有可能是,听话的人对讲话的人本人的兴趣大于他所讲的真正的话题的兴趣。低头往下看通常都表示顺从或不好意思。反复地扭转头看别处可以表达厌烦或不喜欢。妇女比男人更喜欢用目光接触,特别是在和另外一些妇女谈话时更是这样。
  8.engage in 从事、进行某项活动
  But too steady eye contact can make one feel uneasy at times. Most people become uncomfortable under the intense gaze of a stare. One scientist suggests that perhaps one reason that man becomes tense under the force of a stare is in his biological ancestors:in apes, a stare signifies aggressiveness and hostility. The person who insistently fixes his eyes on our face is often more successful in arousing our dislike than impressing us with his directness and sincerity.
  但有时死死地盯着看人,会使人感到不安。被人家盯着看,这会使大多数人感到不舒服。某一位科学家说,人类受到使劲地盯视时会感到紧张,这其中的原因之一就在于人类的生物学的始祖身上:在类人猿中,瞪着眼睛盯着看,就意味着要侵犯和敌对。一个人若是用他的两只眼睛始终不停地直直地看着我们的脸,这样做不但不会给我们留下这个人很直率很真诚的印象,反而会引起我们的反感。
  Similarly, the smile cannot always be interpreted as a sign of friendliness. The person who smiles almost constantly and with little apparent reason makes us uneasy. Even though he may believe that he is expressing friendliness, he may really seem nervous and tense. In other animals, bared teeth are a warning gesture, a danger sign.
  同样道理,微笑也并不能总是解释为友好。如果一个人老是朝着我们微笑,又没有明显的理由,就会使我们感到不安。即使这个人自己认为他是在向你表示友好,很可能让人觉得那人很紧张很不自然。在其它动物中间,呲牙是警告的姿势,是一种危险的信号。
  Genuine warmth or interest can be revealed in the eyes, suggests Dr. Eckhard Hess of the University of Chicago, who believes that the pupils of the eyes can indicate emotion or interest. The opened pupil tends to be associated with pleasant, satisfying experiences. That special sparkle in the lover's eyes need not be fantasy, for love may make the pupil grow larger. Sometimes when we feel that a person is “warm” or “friendly”, it is possible we are reacting to a form of non-verbal communication - his opened pupils.
  真正的热情和兴趣可以从眼神当中表现出来,这是芝加哥埃克哈特· 赫斯博士提出来的。他认为眼睛的瞳孔可以表达感情和兴趣。瞳孔扩张一般总是与愉快的令人满意的经历有关。情人眼神中闪现出的神采不一定就是你的幻觉,因为爱情可以使瞳孔扩大。有时我们觉得某人“热情”、“友好”,这很可能是我们对他所用的非语言文字的交流做出了反应——他的瞳孔扩大了。
  9.pupil(n.)1.小学生;2.瞳孔。本文中是瞳孔的意思
  The next time you are at a party, take note of some of the silent messages being sent around you. Notice which persons seem to draw naturally together to speak, which others try to stay further apart or even avoid meeting each other's eyes. You may find that this silent language is much more fascinating than the actual conversation going on around you.
  下次你参加社交聚会时,多留意一下你周围的人所传送的无声的语言信息。注意一下,哪些人很自然地就聚在一起谈话,注意一下还有哪些人互相间尽量离得远些,甚至尽量避免接触对方的目光。你会发现这些无声的语言远远比你周围的人所实际进行的有声的交谈更能触动人们的心灵。
  三、Vocabulary Exercises
  Ⅰ。 Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.
  satisfying   considerable    consider   complain of
  tense      worry about     at times   take note of
  let alone    hostile
  1. Some conservatives have gone so far as to be hostile to any change.
  2. I left quietly and nobody took note of my leaving.
  3. The patient complained of headache caused by overwork.
  4. The sun was high in the sky, and the heat is considerable.
  5. At times I feel I want to give up smoking.
  6. In those hard times, we couldn't send our children to middle school, let alone college.
  7. Don't worry about us; we are old enough to take care of ourselves.
  8. I saw his face tense with pain.
  9. No student can give the teacher a satisfying answer.
  10. Red colour is generally considered to be active and exciting.
  要点概述:
  1.核心词汇
  embarrass、staff、control、considerable、consider、emotion、satisfying
  2.核心短语
  lack in;So far;worry about;apart from;let alone;take note of
  3.结构
  1)staff 作为集合名词的时候的用法:如果表示整体,注意 staff 后面不加“s”;如果表示个体,staff 后面要加“member”。
  2)pretty 做副词的时候意思是非常、相当、十分,可以修饰形容词;
  3)The chances are that 意思是很有可能……。


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发表于:2009-09-29 17:24:43
09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit24)   Ⅰ.New words:
  带有前缀的单词:
  deforestation: v.& n. 开伐森林
  ecosystem: n. 生态系统
  ecospecies: 生态种
  overpopulate: v. 使人口过密
  population: n. 人口
  international: 国际的
  nation: n. 国家,民族
  inter- 表示“在一起, 交互”之义
  export: n. & vt. 输出,出口
  port: 港口
  import: 进口
  recycle: vt. 使再循环,使再生;n.再循环,再生
  economy n. 经济
  economic a. 经济(上)的
  economics n. 经济学
  economical a. 节约的
  consequence: n. 结果,后果
  consequent: a. 作为结果的
  massive: a. 大量的;大而重的,魁伟的
  mass: n. 群众,大量
  regional: a. 地区的
  region: n. 地区
  globe: n. 地球
  global: a. 全球的
  contribute: v. 贡献,捐献
  contribution: n. 贡献,捐献,投稿
  contributor: n. 捐助者,贡献者
  senseless: a. 无知觉的;无意义的,愚蠢的
  living: n. 生活,生计
  make one's living 谋生
  newly: ad. 新近,最近;重新,以新的方法
  合成词:
  rainforest: n. 热带雨林
  rainfall: n. (降)雨量;一场雨
  greenhouse: n. 温室
  forestland: n. 林地
  make-up: n. 组成,化妆
  课文中出现的重点单词:
  1.upset v. 弄翻,打翻;使苦恼
  过去式、过去分词:(upset-upset-upset )
  a. 不安的;不适的;不舒服的
  E.g.: The large wave upset the boat.
  He is upset because of the generation gap.
  2.contribute (vi./vt)
  E.g.: The Nobel Prize winner contributed much to the research in this field.
  contribute to: 有助于;捐献;起作用
  His carelessness contributed to the accident.
  3.derive v. 由…。得到(from);起源,由……派生(from)
  E.g.: He derived his love for table tennis from his father.
  Many English words derived from French.
  4.cancel v. 取消;删除
  E.g.: The decision of the court cancelled the contract.
  5.owe : vt. 欠(债等),应该向(某人)付出;应该把…归功于(to)
  E.g.: I owe a great deal to my family and my friends for their support.
  His success does not owe to luck but hard work.
  Phrases:
  1.speed up (使)加速
  E.g.: The heart speeds up.
  We should make double efforts to speed up socialist construction.
  2.threaten with 用…威胁,恐吓
  E.g.: The boss threatens the employees with dismissal.
  老板以开除来威胁员工。
  3.at the rate of 以…速度或比率
  He drives at the rate of 40 kilometers per hour.
  The population in this country is increasing at the rate of 1%.
  4.in the face of 在…面前,当着…的面;不顾
  face: n. 脸;正面 v. 面对
  E.g.: He was brave in the face of danger.
  5.stop…。from… 阻止…做…
  I can hardly stop myself from shouting at him.
  Having no money cannot stop them from falling in love.
  6.pay off 偿还;没有白费
  He plans to pay off the loan (贷款) in five years.
  7.solution to 解决…的方法
  8.last but not least 最后的但并非最不重要的
  Last but not least, we must find a peaceful solution to the problem.
  Ⅱ.Text A
  Saving the Rainforests for Future Generations: 拯救热带雨林,造福子孙万代
  Para1:
  Rainforests are being cut and burned from Brazil to Indonesia at such a rate that they could well disappear from the earth's surface before the year 2050.
  译:从巴西到印尼,热带雨林正在被砍伐,被烧毁,其速度非常之快,以致于到不了2050年,热带雨林就会被砍光烧光而从地球表面上彻底消失。
  They are being cleared for valuable timber and other resources to speed up the economic growth of the nations in which they are located.
  are being cleared: 现在进行时的被动语态
  译:为了获取贵重木材和其它资源,加速热带雨林地区的国家的经济发展,热带雨林正在逐渐被砍伐得干干净净。
  The most recent figures show that the area of rainforest destroyed last year alone was bigger than the size of Great Britain and Ireland.
  译:最近的统计数字表明,仅去年一年被毁掉的热带雨林的面积就比英国和爱尔兰两国的面积加起来还大。
  be+ being +V(p.p)
  clear v. 清除,扫除
  speed: 加快
  locate: v. (使)坐落于,位于
  Para.2
  If the present rate of deforestation is allowed to continue, the consequences for the earth will be great.
  译:如果听任目前采伐森林的速度继续发展下去,那么给整个地球所带来的后果将是十分严重的。
  We shall see a massive upsetting of ecosystems, very large increases in soil erosion, increases in flooding and in drought, changes in rainfall patterns and regional, quite possibly global, changes in climate. We shall also probably lose many rare plant and animal species.
  译:我们将会看到:生态系统失衡;土壤侵蚀现象大规模增加;水灾、旱灾大规模出现;降雨方式改变;地区气候改变,甚至可能导致全球气候的改变。我们也许会永远失去很多种珍稀的植物和动物。
  in: 在……方面
  contribute to : 促成,导致
  Para.3
  According to many scientists, the burning of rainforests is also directly contributing to the so-called greenhouse effect. This effect, they say, is raising average temperatures and sea levels as the polar ice caps recede.
  译:根据许多科学家报告,烧毁热带雨林也直接导致了所谓的温室效应。科学家们都说,这种温室效应正在使全球平均气温升高,正在使南极和北极地区的冰冠融化,随之而来的也正在使全球海洋的水平面上升。
  contribute to(to 介词): 有助于
  raise vt.
  rise vi.
  Para.4
  The rainforest is essential in other areas also. It is a medicine chest of unlimited potential. The US National Cancer Institute has identified 2,000 rainforest plants which could be beneficial in fighting cancer. In today's pharmaceutical market, 15 of the 125 drugs derived from plants were discovered in the rainforest.
  chest: 胸膛;箱。
  译:从其它方面来看,热带雨林对人类也是必不可缺的。热带雨林是一个有着无限潜力的医药资源宝库。美国国家癌症研究院已经证实了有2000种热带雨林中的植物对预防和治疗癌症有奇效。在今天的药品市场上,125种单味药中,就有15种是从热带雨林发现的植物中提取出来的。
  Plant species are not the only forms of life threatened with extinction in the rainforest. Rare birds and animals that cannot be found anywhere else in the world have been disappearing at the rate of one a year since the turn of the century.
  译:各种植物在热带雨林中并不是受到灭种威胁的唯一生物。世界上除了热带雨林以外,在其它任何地方都找不到的珍稀鸟类和珍稀动物,在这世纪之交正在以每年消失一种的速度逐渐灭绝。
  the turn of the century 世纪之交
  In the face of all these facts, it seems senseless for countries to continue destroying their rainforests.
  译:面对着这些事实,这些国家还在继续毁灭他们的热带雨林,简直令人觉得他们太麻木不仁了。
  Destroy v. 消灭,摧毁/damage v./n. 损害,伤害/ruin v./n. 毁灭
  However, the problem is not so simple. The countries in which the rainforests are located are all quite poor and overpopulated. One of them, Brazil, has a population of 140 million, about half of whom are living in absolute poverty.
  译:但是,这个问题并不简单。拥有热带雨林的那些国家都相当贫穷而且人口过剩。热带雨林国家之一,巴西,有一亿四千万人。其中约有半数人生活在绝对贫困当中。
  The governments in these countries are usually also too weak to stop large companies and powerful individuals from destroying the rainforests. They have no money, so when the poor whom they cannot feed find work cutting down trees or burning forestland, the governments often have no choice but to turn a blind eye.
  the +a.:表示一类人
  have no choice but to do: 没有办法,只能…
  译:这些国家的政府通常也都十分软弱,以致不能阻止一些大公司或有权有势的人毁坏热带雨林。那些国家的政府都没有钱,所以当政府养活不起的那些穷人,找到了砍树或在森林里烧树开荒的工作时,政府别无选择,只好睁一只眼闭一只眼。
  Moreover, for many of these countries, the valuable timber and other resources found in the rainforests are also a very important source of foreign exchange, which they badly need to pay off their foreign debts and purchase foreign equipment and other goods.
  foreign exchange: 外汇
  译:况且,对于这些国家中的有些国家来说,热带雨林中的珍贵木材和其它资源也是他们换取外汇的重要资源,以便用来偿还外债和购买外国设备以及其它物资。
  The only solution to the problem, then, seems to be for the richer countries of the world to help the countries where the rainforests are located. One way they could help would be by cancelling the international debts that countries like Brazil owe, while also working together with these countries to solve their other economic problems.
  译:那么,这个问题唯一的解决办法似乎就是世界上较富裕国家应该援助那些地处热带雨林地区的国家。援助的方法之一就是放弃或取消像巴西这类国家所欠他们的国际债务,同时还要同这些国家一起协作去解决他们的一些经济问题。
  At the same time, they could support programmes to teach the local people to regard the rainforests as gardens to be harvested, and not merely as places where the only way for them to make a living is by senselessly cutting down trees and burning.
  译:与此同时,他们还应该举办各种培训班,教会当地居民把热带雨林看成是获得大丰收的花园、果园、菜园、动植物园,而不要只把热带雨林看成是只能用愚昧无知的砍树烧树办法来谋生的地方。
  regard …as …:把…当成
  see …as
  Such programmes could teach the local people how to select trees worth exporting and to cut only those trees down while leaving the rest, so that the basic make-up of the forest would not be disturbed.
  be worth doing sth.: 值得…。
  译:这类培训班还可以教会当地居民如何精选出值得出口的树木,只把有出口价值的树木砍掉,而把其余的树都保留下来,以保证森林中基本的生态平衡不被破坏。
  This would also mean that the environment needed for the survival of the many rare species of animals and plants, as well as of the Indian tribes that live in the rainforest, could be preserved.
  preserve:保护,存留
  译:这样做,也将意味着会把许多珍稀植物和动物赖以生存的环境以及热带雨林中的印地安各部落赖以生存的环境保存下来。
  The local people could also be taught to earn more money by cutting the selected trees and making them into furniture on the spot.
  select v. 选择 a.精选的
  selection n. 选择
  selective: a. 选择的,选择性的
  In addition, they could learn how to harvest other valuable natural materials that are now being wasted, and sell them overseas to earn foreign exchange for their countries.
  还可以教会当地居民通过采伐精选的树木并用这些树木在当地加工成家具的办法去赚到更多的钱。此外,当地居民在培训班还可以学会怎样去采集现在被浪费掉的其它珍贵天然材料,然后把这些材料卖到国外去,以便为他们的祖国赚回外汇。
  Last but not least, people in the richer countries of the world could also help save the rainforests by using wood-derived products such as paper more carefully and by recycling used paper products to help reduce the demand for newly cut wood.
  译:最后,同样重要的是,世界上较富裕国家的人民,要更加注意节约使用以木材为原料的纸张之类的产品,回收利用纸制产品,以帮助减少新的砍伐树木的需求量,从而帮助拯救热带雨林。
  Ⅲ.Vocabulary Exercises :
  ⅰ.Choose the proper words given at the beginning.
  1.economy economic economical
  a.The war is a fatal blow to the economy of both countries.
  b.It is important to bring about a new economic order in the world.
  c.The newly invented machine is economical of time and energy.
  2.consequence consequent consequently
  a.The farmers suffered a drought and there was a consequent shortage of food in the market.
  b.If you behave so foolishly, you must be ready to take the consequence.
  c.She was a bright and eager student and, consequently, did well in school.
  3.contribute contribution contributor
  a.His involvement contributed effectively to the solution of the dispute.
  b.All contributors to the church will have a meeting today.
  c.The young policeman made a remarkable contribution to public safety.
  4.overpopulate population populate
  a.If we didn't carry out family planning, our country would be much more overpopulated.
  b. The centre of the city is a densely populated area.
  c. The country is adopting radical measures to control the growth of its population.
  ⅱ.Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below in their proper forms.
  local massive upset senseless recede threaten export recycle select pay off
  1.Empty bottles are recycled in order for the glass to be used.
  2.The news that he failed the final exam upset him emotionally.
  3.Tea, grain and sugar are among the most important exports.
  4.The doctors made massive efforts to save the dying patient.
  5.Columbus' idea of going east by sailing west was thought to be senseless by the Spanish nobles.
  6.The coast was receding / receded slowly as our ship sailed out to sea.
  7.Many rare species of animals are being threatened with extinction.
  8.It's almost certain that our plan will pay off; it is a wonderful idea.
  9.“When in Rome, do as the Romans do” means that one should behave according to the local customs.
  10.Why didn't you select a better topic for your conversation?
  Text B Life on the Tundra
  Ⅰ.New words:
  1.含有前缀的单词:
  subsoil n. 下层土,底土
  2.含有后缀的单词:
  marshy a.沼泽般的,湿软的
  →marsh n.沼泽
  →表示地形的单词:maintain/sea /desert /plain /plateau
  continous a. 连续不断的,不停歇的,表示动作或物体不间断地进行下去
  eg: They chattered continuously for an hour. 他们不间断地聊了一个小时。
  continual a. 连续的,频繁的,表示多次重复的动作(有可能有间断)
  eg: Please stop your continual questions. 请不要再接二连三的提问题了。
  permanently ad. 长久地,永久地
  →permanent (a.) 反义词:temporary a. 暂时的
  lifeless a. 1.无生命的,死的;2.没有生气的,单调的
  disturbance n. 1.骚动,动乱;2.打扰,干扰
  deep a. 深的
  depth n. 1.深度2.深处[常pl.] 3.深奥,深刻
  seemingly ad. 1.表面地 2.近乎真实地
  shortage n. 不足,缺少
  explorer n. 探索者,考察者
  3.合成词:
  daylight : 1.日光 2.日间
  pipeline : 管道,管线
  4.特殊记忆:
  minor 比较小的;少数的 ←→ major 比较大的;多数的
  1)这两个词本身就有比较意味,用比较级时不需要变形加er
  2)在用比较级的句子中,不用比较连词than,而用介词to
  bay海湾 / port 海港 / coast 海岸,海滨/ gulf 海湾
  5.本单元课文中出现的单词:
  1.horizon n. 1.地平线;2.(喻)眼界,见识
  E.g.: the horizon 地平线
  Travel broadens one's horizons. 旅游可以开阔人的眼界。
  2.continuous & continual
  E.g.: They chattered continuously for an hour. 他们足足聊了1个小时。
  Please stop your continual questions. 请不要再接二连三地提问题了。
  3.hunt vt. 1.追猎,猎取;2.追赶,搜索
  vi.(for)1.打猎;2.猎食;3.搜寻
  n.打猎
  E.g.: go hunting 去打猎
  He's been hunting for a lost book. 他一直在找那本丢失的书。
  Phrases:
  1.be known as 以…而闻名,通常名叫
  E.g.: Mark Twain was known as a great novelist. 马克· 吐温作为一个伟大的小说家被人们熟知。
  →be known for 因为…而出名
  2.in search of 寻找…,寻求…
  Eg: Scientists are in search of a cure for the disease. 科学家正在想治疗这种疾病的方法。
  3.to …degree 达到…程度
  to some degree 达到一定的程度
  to what degree 达到什么程度
  to a high/low degree 达到很高/低的程度
  to such an degree 达到如此…的程度
  to a certain degree 达到一定的程度
  E.g. He is vain to a high degree. 他非常爱虚荣。
  4.to some extent 在某种程度上
  E.g.: To some extent you are correct . 从某种程度上说你是正确的。
  I agree with you to a certain extent. 我在一定程度上同意你的意见。
  5.prevent … from 防止,阻止
  E.g.: Put on more clothes to prevent yourself from getting a cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒。
  6.in turn 1.依次,轮流;2.反过来
  by turns 轮流,交替
  1)please speak in turn. 请依次发言。
  2)Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 理论以实践为基础,反过来又为实践服务。
  3)The couple wash dishes by turns. 夫妻俩轮流洗碗
  7.result in = bring about 导致,产生
  E.g.: Our efforts resulted in success. 我们的努力终于导致了成功
  →result from 因为…。发生,产生
  E.g.: His injury resulted from a fall. 他因摔倒而受伤。
  Ⅱ.Text B
  Life on the Tundra
  冻土带上的生活情景
  Tundra is the name given to the low, marshy plains of Europe, Siberia, and North America that border on the Arctic Ocean.
  译:欧洲、西伯利亚和北美洲接近北冰洋的低洼沼泽平原称为冻土带。
  1.border on 与…相邻
  In Alaska, the vast, cold region known as the “Northern Slope” is part of the tundra. Nature sets harsh terms for survival in this land. Only those plants and animals that are adapted to the hostile environment can survive in it.
  2.be know as
  terms 条件(如果去掉s则没有条件的意思,表示“学期;术语”)
  3.adapt to 适应…
  译:美国阿拉斯加州,那块广阔寒冷通称为“北边坡地”的地区就是冻土带的一部分。大自然为这片土地设置的生存条件十分恶劣。只有那些能适应在逆境中生存的植物和动物才能在这种环境中生存下来。
  Long periods of darkness and bitter cold are the major threats to life on the tundra. At the Arctic Circle, the sun cannot be seen above the horizon in December. North of the Circle, the darkness lasts even longer. Over the northern reaches of the tundra, no sunlight can be seen at all for several months of the year.
  bitter 在这里表示“刺骨的”
  4.over : beyond在…以外
  5.no … at all: not … at all 一点也不,根本不
  eg. You don't look old at all. 你看起来一点也不老。
  译:长期的黑暗和刺骨的严寒是在冻土带上生活的两大最主要的威胁。北极圈在12月份,地平线上是看不到太阳的。从北极圈往北黑暗的时间通常会持续得更长些。在冻土带北部边缘以外的地方,一年中有好几个月根本见不到阳光。
  The darkness is balanced, to some degree, by continuous daylight during the summer months.
  译:持续的黑暗,从某种意义上来说,同夏季几个月连续不断的白昼达到了平衡。
  6.Balance n. 平衡
  v. 使…平衡,使…均衡
  But even in the warmest month, the temperature only averages about 50 degree F (10 degrees C)。
  F(fahrenheit) C(centigrade)
  Boiling point 212° 100°
  Freezing point 32° 0°
  Absolute-zero -459.67° -273.15°
  换算公式:
  摄氏度数=(华氏度度数-32)×5/9
  华氏度数=摄氏度度数×9/5 +32
  译:但即使是在最暖和的月份里,平均温度刚刚能达到华氏50度(10摄氏度)。
  During the dark winter months the average temperature falls to -16 degrees F ( -27 degrees C), and sometimes to -40 degrees (C and F) and below.
  译:在冬季那几个黑暗的月份里,平均气温降到华氏负16度,有时达零下40度甚至更低。
  Because of the intense cold, the subsoil of the tundra remains permanently frozen to a great depth. During the brief summer, a few feet (about a meter) of soil thaw at the surface. It is this thin layer of active soil that supports all living things on the tundra.
  译:由于酷寒,冻土带的下层土都冻得很深。在短暂的夏季仅三英尺的表层土壤能解冻。正是这被太阳晒暖的苏醒过来的薄薄的一层土壤养活着冻土带上的一切生物。
  For nine months of the year, the tundra is a dark, seemingly lifeless wild land. Then in June, as if by magic, a never-setting summer sun gives birth to hundreds of species of arctic plants to cover the ground.
  7.give birth to (prep.) 产生…,生产出…
  译:每年长达9个月,冻土带都是一块看上去毫无生机的荒凉的土地。然后到6月份,好像是施了魔法一样,一轮永不落的夏天的太阳生出了数百种北极的植物覆盖着大地。
  A plant that grows more than three feet (about a meter) is unusual on the tundra. There are no tall trees. The frozen subsoil prevents roots from growing deep enough to support them. By the end of August the breath of winter returns, and by mid-September the tundra is white again.
  译:一种植物若能长得超过了三英尺,这在冻土带上就是很不平常的了。冻土带上根本就不会有高大的树木。深层的永冻土使植物的根不能深深地扎下去来支撑高大的树木。到8月底,冬天的气息又返回来了, 9月中旬这冻土带又是冬天了。
  The animal life on the tundra is unusually rich for an environment that seems so harsh. Herds of arctic deer move from place to place in search of food. Bands of wolves follow them and hunt for the weak or sick ones.
  rich adj.富的, 有钱的, 富有的, 富饶的, 肥沃的, 充足的, 丰富的
  表示数量的词:
  herds of deer 一群群的鹿
  bands of wolves 一群群的狼
  a group/crowd of people 一群人
  a herd of cattle 一群牛
  a flock of birds 一群鸟
  a nest of ants 一群蚂蚁
  译:在这种非常恶劣的环境中,冻土带上动物的生活却非常充实。一群一群的北极鹿到处迁徙以便寻找食物。一帮一帮的北极狼跟踪着北极鹿群以便猎吃鹿群中的老弱病残者。
  Few birds actually live on the tundra. However, a variety of birds migrate to nest and feed during the summer. The wet, marshy land produces a large number of insects that provide food for the smaller birds that, in turn, provide food for the arctic fox and the wolf.
  8.a variety of : various of : 多种多样的
  译:实际上几乎没有鸟类生活在冻土带上。但是各种各样的候鸟到了夏季会到这里来筑巢繁衍生息。这湿润的沼泽地能生出大量的昆虫,这就给小鸟提供了食物。接下来这些小鸟又充作了北极狐和北极狼的食物。
  The balance of nature is so delicate on the tundra that even minor disturbances may produce major changes in the environment.
  译:自然界的平衡在冻土带上是非常灵敏的,只要稍微有一点破坏平衡的现象出现就可能产生环境上的一些重大变化。
  Any increase or decrease in the population of one species may affect all other species on the tundra. For example, if the number of wolves and foxes decrease, the food chain is upset.
  译译:任何一个物种在数量上的增加或减少都会影响到冻土带上所有的其它物种。例如,如果北极狼和北极狐的数量减少,那食物链就会遭到破坏,就会脱节。
  Without wolves, the number of grazing animals - like the deer - would increase. This increase would result in a food shortage, which would cause death to many smaller animals. A decrease in the number of these smaller animals would in turn decrease the food supply for the arctic fox and the wolf. In this way, the entire food chain might be affected by a change in the number of a single species.
  译:倘若没有了北极狼,那些食草兽——像驯鹿之类——就会增加,这一增加就会导致食物短缺,很多小动物就会死亡。倘若这些小动物数量减少了,接下来就会减少了供应给北极狐和北极狼的食物。这样下来,由于某一物种的数量的改变,就有可能影响到整个食物链的脱节。
  Until recently, the changing seasons on the tundra were seen only by a few Eskimo hunters and explorers. What would draw men and women to live in such a hostile land? The answer is oil.
  译:不久前,只有极少数的爱斯基摩的猎手和探险家才能深究到冻土带上的寒来暑往,冬去春来。那么,是什么东西把男男女女都吸引到这块环境十分恶劣的土地上来的呢?答案就是:石油。
  9.draw (v.): attract 吸引
  In 1968, oil was discovered beneath the frozen soil on Alaska's Northern Slope. Now an 800-mile (about 1300 kilometers) pipeline has been built from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Ocean to Valdes, a port on the south coast of Alaska.
  译:1968年在阿拉斯加北边坡地的冻土下面发现了石油。现在已经把一条800英里长的输油管从北冰洋上的普拉德霍湾架设到了阿拉斯加南岸的港口城市瓦尔迪兹。
  The pipeline carries the oil from the Northern Slope, across the tundra, to the port. From there, it is shipped to the rest of the United States.
  译:这条输油管把石油从北部坡地,越过冻土带,输送到瓦尔迪兹港口,又从那里把石油装船运送到美国其它地方。
  10.ship (v.) 运送,输送
  Thousands of men and women were needed to build and maintain the pipeline. For the first time, large numbers of people were brought into contact with the tundra.
  译:为了修建和维护这条输油管,成千上万的男女需要参与工作。这是破天荒第一次,把一大批又一大批的人送到这里来与冻土带打交道。
  Their presence and the presence of the pipeline they built represented a major change in the environment. How will the life cycles of the tundra be affected?
  译:这些人的到来以及他们所修建的输油管的出现标志着冻土带的环境的重大改变。那么,冻土带的生活周期会受到什么影响呢?
  The survival of the United States depends on the ability to find new sources of energy. Oil from beneath the tundra is very important to the nations' development. But the survival of the tundra depends on how carefully people maintain the delicate balance of nature in this environment.
  译:美国能否继续生存下去,依赖于是否有能力找到新的能源。来自冻土带下面的石油对美国的发展至关重要。但是,这块冻土带上的一切是否能继续维持下去,依赖于人们是否能细心地维护这种环境下大自然里各个物种之间的平衡。

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09年10月自考英语(一)串讲笔记(unit25)  Text A American Men Don't Cry
  Ⅰ.New words
  1.带有前缀的单词:
  disapprove v. 不赞成(of)
  disapproval n.
  discourage vt. 1.使泄气,使沮丧;2.阻拦
  encourage v. 鼓舞,鼓励
  unable a. 不能的,不会的(to  v.)
  incapacity n. 无能力的,不能
  inability n. 无能,无能为力
  unnecessary adj. 不必要的, 多余的
  disequilibrate vt. 打破…的平衡
  restore vt. 使恢复,(使)回复
  2.带有后缀的单词:
  weakness n. 软弱;缺点 ←→ advantage/merit 优点,优势
  childishness n. 幼稚
  dependence n. 依靠
  permit v. 准许,允许
  permission n. 允许
  permissive a. 准许的,允许的
  stable a. 稳定的
  stability n. 稳定性,稳定;坚定,恒心
  intend v. 准备,打算
  intention n. 打算,计划
  confuse v. 混淆,混乱
  confusion n. 混乱,慌乱;混淆
  necessity n. 需要,必要性;必需品
  necessary a. 需要的
  interference n. 干涉,干预;妨碍
  maintenance n. 维持,保持;维修;坚持,维护
  animated a. 栩栩如生的;生气勃勃的
  lessen vt. 减轻,减少;缩小,贬低
  vi. 变少
  核心词汇:
  1.childlike 孩子般的,天真无邪
  eg: It is difficult for us to have the childlike enjoyment now. 现在对于我们来说,想要享受孩子般的欢乐实在是太难了。
  childish 幼稚的,傻里傻气的
  eg: Don't be so childish. 不要再这么孩子气了。
  2.disapprove of 不赞成…(但不一定表示反对)
  Eg: She wants to be an actress, but her parents disapprove of her intentions.
  The father disapproved of his daughter's marriage to the poor fellow.
  3.discourage 使泄气,使沮丧;
  阻拦 discourage …。 from…。
  Eg: Tom was discouraged with life when the beautiful girl refused his love.
  Parents should discourage their children from smoking.
  4.restore 使恢复,使回复
  ① 将(失物)归还原主
  Eg: Police restored the stolen jewels to the owner.
  ② 使某人/某物回复到原处或原位
  Eg: He restored his dictionary to the shelf.
  ③ 使某人/某物恢复原先的状况
  Eg:After the operation, he restored his sight. (视力)
  interfere in sth. 在某件事上打扰
  interfere with sb. 打扰了某人
  interference(n.)in/with sth.
  eg: Don't interfere in matters that don't concern you. 不要干预与你无关的事情。
  We can't understand his interference in/with the other's domestic (家庭的) matters.
  6.damage n.
  do /cause damage to 对某人或某物造成部分性的损伤。
  eg: The accident did/caused a lot of damage to the car.
  7.lessen v.
  eg: We should gradually lessen the difference between the city and the countryside.
  8.defect /fault /error /mistake 都可以表示没有做对事情或事情做得不妥。
  1)Mistake在四个词中表意最笼统,可以用在日常的各种情况当中
  Eg: Your essay is full of mistakes.
  It was a mistake to go there on holiday.
  2)Error比mistake更书面化,通常用于书面语或比较正规的情况下。
  Eg: It is a technical error.
  3)Fault侧重于造成错误的个人责任。
  Eg: The child broke the window, but it was his parents' fault for letting him playing indoors.
  He has many faults, but laziness is not one of them.
  4)Defect指严重的缺陷
  The new car has to be withdrawn from the market because of a mechanical defect.
  9.intend to do = plan to do 打算做某事
  intention n.
  Eg: If I've hurt your feelings it was quite without intention. 如果我伤害了你的感情,完全是出于无意。
  10.confusion n.
  confuse v.
  Eg: Her unexpected arrival threw us into total confusion. 她来得很突然,使我们完全不知所措。
  They confused me by asking so many questions.
  11.necessity n.
  Eg: Necessity is the mother of invention. 需要是发明之母。
  Food, clothing and shelter are all basic necessities of life. 衣、食、住是生活的基本必需品。
  Phrase:
  1.in the least 一点,丝毫(不)(用于否定句)
  Eg: They are not in the least interested in skiing.
  2.to disapprove (of) 不同意
  3.with regard to关于…,对于… = in regard to = in regard of
  Eg: With regard to price, we think it is too high.
  4.feel like sth./ doing sth. 想做某事,愿意做某事
  Eg: I feeling like (having) a drink.
  5.not that …… but that … 不是因为…而是因为
  Eg: I can not attend your birthday party not that I'm unwilling to but that I have no time.
  6.(in)capacity to do (没)有…能力做
  7.as a whole 作为一个整体;总的来说
  Eg: As a whole, the climate here is very nice.
  8.(in-) ability to (没)有…的能力(这里to不是介词是不定式)
  Eg: He has the ability to do the work.
  9.among other things 除了其它方面,此外
  Eg: Mr. Smith returned to his hometown among other things, to see his old mother.
  10. clear …of … 把…从…中清除
  Eg: People are clearing the streets of snow.
  Ⅱ.Text A
  American Men Don't Cry
  译:美国男子汉一般不会哭
  American men don't cry because it is considered not characteristic of men to do so.
  译:美国的男子汉一般都不会哭。因为男子汉要哭了,那就被认为这个人不具备男子汉的特征。
  1.A is characteristic of B A是B的特征
  eg. Honesty is characteristic of children.
  Only women cry.Cry is a “weakness” characteristic of the female, and no American male wants to be identified with anything in the least weak or feminine.
  译:只有妇女才哭。哭是女性软弱的表现。不论做什么事,没有任何一个美国男人想要让人家认为有丝毫懦弱或者像个女人似的。
  2.be identified with 认为…等同于
  Eg: He identifies her happiness with his own. (这里用的是主动形式identify with)
  You can't identify money with happiness.
  Smoking is identified with committing suicide.
  In the least 一点
  Crying, in our culture, is identified with childishness, with weakness and dependence. No one likes a crybaby, and we disapprove of crying even in children, discouraging it in them as early as possible. In a land so devoted to the pursuit of happiness as ours, crying really is rather un-American.
  译:在我们的思想文化观念当中,哭哭啼啼总是跟孩子气、懦弱、不能自立联系在一起的。没有任何人会喜欢一个哭闹的孩子,所以即使对儿童来说,我们也不赞成他们哭,尽可能从很小的时候起,越早越好,鼓励孩子们不要哭。在像我们这样一个热衷于追求幸福快乐的国家里,哭哭啼啼实在不太合乎美国人的风度。
  Adults must learn not to cry in situations in which it is permissible for a child to cry. Women being the “weaker” and “dependent” sex, it is only natural that they should cry in certain emotional situations. In women, crying is excusable. But in men, crying is a mark of weakness. So goes the American belief with regard to crying.
  译:成年人都必须知道,凡在允许小孩子哭的情况下,成年人都不应该哭。因为女性是一种“软弱的”、“依赖男人的”性别,女性在特定的环境下引起感情波动,若是哭一通也是很自然的。对妇女们来说,哭是可以原谅的。可是对男人来说,哭就会给人留下软弱无能的印象。于是美国人对于哭泣的看法就这样产生了。
  mark n.标志;品牌
  go 表示进行,起作用
  eg. The meeting went better than we have expected.
  “A little man,” we impress on our male children, “never cries. Only girls and crybabies do.” And so we condition males in America not to cry whenever they feel like doing so.
  3.impress on/upon 牢记,铭记;给…以极深的印象
  eg: We impress on the young people that pride goes before a fall. 我们让青年人牢记骄者必败
  condition
  n.情况,境况   v.使适应,使习惯
  in the condition of 在…情况下
  at the condition 处于…情况下
  译:我们让我们的男性儿童铭记在心:“一个小男子汉永远也不会哭的,只有女孩子和刚刚生下来的小娃娃才会哭。”所以每当美国的男性想要哭的时候,我们就训练他们憋住别哭。
  It is not that American males are unable to cry because of some biological time clock within them which causes them to run down in that capacity as they grow older, but that they are trained not to cry.
  Run down 用尽,耗尽;变弱
  Eg. If you leave your head lights on, you will soon run down your battery.
  译:这并不是因为他们随着年龄的增长,体内某个生物钟上的哭的能力已经消耗殆尽,而是因为他们被训练得不许哭。
  And so the “little man” controls his desire to cry and goes on doing so until he is unable to cry even when he wants to.
  译:于是这“小男子汉”想哭的时候,也老是憋着不哭,一直憋到甚至当他想哭的时候也不会哭了。
  Thus do we produce a trained incapacity in the American male to cry. And this is bad.
  thus放在句首句子要倒装
  译:这样,我们就致使美国男性被训练成不会哭的人了。这很不好。
  Why is it bad? Because crying is a natural function of the human organism which is designed to restore the emotionally disequilibrated person to a state of equilibrium.
  译:为什么不好呢?因为哭是人的有机体中的一种很自然的功能,有这一功能就是为了让那些感情上失去了平衡的人,能恢复到感情上平衡的状态。
  The return of the disequilibrated organ systems of the body to steady states or dynamic stability is known as homeostasis. Crying serves a homeostatic function for the organism as a whole. Any interference with homeostasis is likely to be damaging to the organism. And there is good reason to believe that the American male's trained incapacity to cry is seriously damaging to him.
  译:把人体失去了平衡的器官体系恢复到稳定状态或恢复到正常运作状态下的稳定状态,被称为体内平衡。哭对于整个生物体的体内平衡起作用。对体内平衡的任何干扰都有可能损害人的有机体。所以,我们有充分的理由相信,把美国男性训练得不会哭,这会对美国男性造成严重的损害。
  It is unnecessary to cry whenever one wants to cry, but one should be able to cry when one ought to cry - when one needs to cry. For to cry under certain emotionally disequilibrating conditions is necessary for the maintenance of health.
  for :引导原因状语从句
  译:一个人不论任何时候想哭就哭,这实在是没有必要;但是当一个人应该哭的时候——也就是一个人需要哭的时候,应该能够哭出来。因为哭上一通在内心感情失衡的情况下,对保持身体健康是必要的。
  To be human is to weep. The human species is the only one in the whole of animated nature that sheds tears. The trained inability of any human being to weep is lessening of his capacity to be human - a defect which usually goes deeper than the mere inability to cry.
  go 进行,起作用
  译:只要是人就会落泪。在整个动物世界里,人类这个物种是唯一的会流泪的物种。把一个人训练成不会落泪的人,这就减少了他作为一个人所应有的能力。减少一个人所应有的能力,这一缺陷比仅仅是不会哭泣在意义上要深远得多。
  And this, among other things, is what American parents - with the best intentions in the world - have achieved for the American male. It is very sad. If we feel like it, let us all have a good cry - and clear our minds of those cobwebs of confusion which have for so long prevented us from understanding the natural necessity of crying.
  译:而这一点,尤其是这一点,正是那些怀着人间最美好的用心的美国父母们给美国男性养成的。简直是太可悲了。如果我们想哭的话,那就让我们好好地哭上一通吧,把那些很长时间以来使我们不能理解哭这种天性的需要、像蜘蛛网一样束缚人思想的种种糊涂想法,从我们的脑海中清除得干干净净吧。
  Ⅲ.Vocabulary Exercises
  For each sentence, fill in the blank with the proper form of the words given at the beginning. Please pay attention to the part of speech of each word.
  1.disapprove approve approval disapproval
  a.She wants to be a nurse but her parents disapprove of her intention.
  b.When the girl picked her nose at the dinner table, her father looked at her with disapproval.
  c.We have obtained the authorities' approval in our involvement in the program.
  d.If my project isn't approved of by the headmaster all my work will have been wasted.
  2.discourage encourage courage encouraging(a.) courageous
  a.The young explorer feels greatly discouraged by the difficulties he has encountered.
  encount: 遇到,遭遇
  b.When his opinion is different from that of the majority, the doesn't have the courage to say what he thinks right.
  c.The speaker felt fairly confident when he got a encouraging smile from the audience.
  d.The Association for Wildlife Preservation encourages members to protect the environment.
  e.The young man was courageous enough to break away from traditional ideas.
  3.permisssible permit permission
  a.Lies are not permissible evidence in court.
  b.Nobody can enter the air base without special permission.
  c.Smoking is not permitted in public places of recreation.
  4.organism organ organic
  a.The organ of political power should serve the people.
  b.Cities are more complex organism than self–sufficient villages.
  c.In a well-written article, all the paraphs should be written into an organic whole .
  Text B Stop Worrying Now!
  Ⅰ.New words
  take it easy :don't worry
  1.含有前缀的单词:
  immobilize v. 使固定,使不动
  →mobile a. 易于快速移动的
  2.含有后缀的单词:
  virtually ad. 实际地,实质地,事实上
  obsessive a. 缠人的,强迫性的;过分的
  justify vt. 证明…是正当的;为…辩护
  error n. 错误
  erroneous a. 错误的,不正确的
  sensible a. 感觉得到的
  sensibly ad. 感觉得到地;明智地,明白事理地
  sense n. 感觉
  minimize vt.将……减到最少
  minimum n.最小值, 最少量
  maximize v. 增加到最大量
  maximum n. 最大量
  absurd a. 荒谬的
  absurdity n. 荒谬
  compulsively ad. 强迫地
  enjoyment n. 享受
  troublesome a. 令人烦恼的,讨厌的;麻烦的,难处理的
  3.合成词:
  payoff n. 发工资;付清,偿还;
  backache n. 背痛,腰痛
  4.特殊记忆:
  dividend n. 红利,利息;回报,效益
  fulfill vt. 履行;完成
  resolve vt.使分解,解析;解决,消除
  solve vt. 解决,解答
  重要词汇:
  1.distress 常用于被动语态
  n. 痛苦,苦恼
  v. 使痛苦,使苦恼
  Eg: I was most distressed to hear the sad news of your father's death .听到令尊去世的消息,我十分难过。
  2.justify v. 证明……是正当的;为…辩护
  Eg: You shouldn't attempt to justify yourself.
  3.fulfill vt. 履行(promise, duty等); 完成(task等)
  Eg: He fulfilled his promise after graduation he returned to his hometown .
  4.resolve vt. 使分解,解析;解决,消除
  Eg: Her arrival did little to resolve the situation.
  Phrases:
  1.in the first place 首先
  in the second place 其次
  Eg: I would not advise you to read that book, in the first place, it is written in English and in the second place it is very difficult.
  2.hang on to (prep)
  hung hung 悬挂
  hang
  hanged hanged 绞死
  Eg: The boy hung on to his mother's apron, and would not let go. 男孩抓着他妈妈的围裙,不让她走
  The police have only one fingerprint to hang on to. 警察只有一个指纹印可作线索。
  3.use up v.用完, 耗尽
  同义词:run down 消耗,用尽
  Eg: He used up the money he had.
  和up相关的短语:
  use up / wash up 洗净/ dry up 干得一滴水都没有了
  4.give up 放弃;让出
  give in 屈服,投降
  eg: All hope of finding the missing plane was given up.
  He doesn't give in to his fate. 他不屈服于命运
  5.back down 放弃(要求等);让步
  Eg: He said he could swim, but he backed down when we got to the lake.
  Ⅱ.Text B
  Stop Worrying Now!
  马上停止不必要的担心!
  Worry is one of the most common forms of emotional distress in our culture. Almost everyone spends a considerable amount of present moments worrying about the future. And virtually all of it is for nothing. Obsessive worry will never make things any better. In fact, such worry will very likely help you to be less effective in dealing with the present.
  1.spend ……… doing
   in/on sth.
  eg. I spend much time in books.
  I spend much money on books.
  2.Considerable a. 相当多的
  have sb. to do 让某人…。
  the adj. 一类…
  译:在我们的日常生活中,担心是情绪上苦恼的最为普遍的形式之一。几乎每个人都会花费相当数量的大好时光用在为未来而担心。可是这一切的担心都是毫无用处的。过分的担心永远也不会使情况变得有丝毫改善。事实上,这种担心会使你处理现在的事务的工作效率变得更低。
  In order to reduce worry, it is necessary to understand the subconscious psychological “payoffs” for choosing to worry in the first place.
  it 为形式主语, to …为真正主语
  译:为了减少担心,首先,要从心理学上弄明白,事事都担心起来,会产生什么意想不到的后果。
  “I can't do a thing. I'm too worried about …” This is a common lament, and one with a payoff that keeps you standing still and avoiding the risk of action. Clearly, it is easier, if less rewarding, to worry than to be an active, involved person.
  译:“我什么事都没心思干,我总是非常担心……常听到有人这样哀叹,而这种哀叹的后果就是你呆呆地站在那里,根本不采取任何冒险性的行动。很明显,和积极采取行动比较起来,只是担心是比较容易做到的,只不过于事无补罢了。”
  By worrying about someone else, you can label yourself as a caring person. Worry proves that you are a good parent or spouse (“I can't help worrying - it's because I love you.”)。 A handsome dividend, although lacking in logical, healthy thinking.
  3.can't help doing 情不自禁地
  handsome a. 相当的
  译:替别人担心,你可以标傍自己是个关心他人的人。你担心了,这就可以证明你是位好家长或者好配偶。(我不能不担心——只是因为我爱你。)这话让人听了可真好哇,尽管这类想法缺乏逻辑性,也站不住脚。
  If you weigh too much, you may eat more when you worry; hence, you have a good reason for hanging on to the worry behavior.
  译:如果你身体肥胖,那么你心情不好的时候,你可能吃得更多;所以,你有充足的理由多吃,因为你老是心情不好嘛!
  Similarly, you may find yourself smoking more in troublesome situations, and can use the worry to avoid giving up smoking.
  4.Avoid  doing 逃避
  译:同样道理,在你心情不好的情况下,你很可能不知不觉地发现你的烟抽得更多了,你用心情不好作籍口,不去戒烟。
  The same neurotic reward system also applies to health. It may be easier for you to worry about chest pains than to risk finding out the truth, and then having to deal directly with yourself.
  译:这种从心理上找个籍口的办法也适用于人的健康状况。如果你胸痛,你只是担心有病,这要比冒险去检查出真实情况到底有病没病,然后直接去医院处置胸痛,要容易得多。
  Worry can bring a lot of diseases such as tension headaches and backaches. While these may not seem to be payoffs, they do result in considerable attention from others and justify much self-pity as well. And some people would rather be pitied than fulfilled.
  译:忧心忡忡可导致很多疾病,例如,情绪紧张性头痛或脊背痛。尽管人们可能觉得这些病症并不是“担心”所造成的后果,但是有了这些病确实能引起他人的关注,也能为自我怜悯找到理由。而有些人宁肯被人怜悯也不愿振作起来去充分发挥自己的才能。
  5.would rather …than …。 宁愿…也不愿意…
  Now that you understand the psychological support system for neurotic worry, you can begin to devise some measures for reducing the number of troublesome worry bugs that breed in this erroneous zone.
  6.now that 既然 = since
  译:现在既然你从心理学理论体系上已经明白了,“担心”具有神经过敏的性质,那么你就可以开始采取一些措施去减少在“担心”这个误区中产生的令人烦恼的“担心虫”的数量了。
  Begin to view your present moments as times to live, rather than times to worry about the future. When you catch yourself worrying, ask yourself, “What am I avoiding now by using up this moment with worry?” Then begin to attack whatever it is you're avoiding.
  7.view …as = see ……as 把……看作
  use up:用尽
  8.attack : resolve 解决
  译:马上开始吧!把你现在的时刻看成是应该好好地生活的时间,而不要看成是用来为了未来而忧心忡忡担心不已的时间。每当你突然发现你又在忧心忡忡起来,你不妨扪心自问:“我把这一时光耗费在不必要的担心上面,我在回避什么?”那么就开始动手去解决你所回避的问题吧。
  A friend of mine spent a week on an island off the Connecticut coast. She enjoys taking long walks, but soon discovered that there were a number of dogs on the island which were allowed to run free.
  译:我的一位朋友,离开了康涅狄格海岸去一个岛上度过了一周。她喜欢长时间在外面散步,不过不久她就发现那岛上有为数很多的狗,人们让这些狗到处乱跑。
  She decided to fight her worry that they might attack her. She carried a rock in her hand and resolved to show no fear as the dogs came running toward her. Seeing someone who refused to back down, they turned and ran away.
  resolve to do = decide to do 决定干…。
  = determine to do 决心…
  译:她决心战胜担心那些狗有可能袭击她的这种恐惧心理。她手里攥着一块石头,决心表示出,如果这群狗朝着她跑来她根本不害怕。这群狗因为见到了这位不后退不让步的人,就掉转头跑掉了。
  While I am not encouraging dangerous behavior, I do believe that a sensibly effective challenge to worry is the most productive way to minimize its role in your life.
  “to minimize its role in your life” 作 “way” 的后置定语
  译:尽管我并不鼓励冒险的行为,但我确信,采用切合实际的有效的方法来向“担心的心态”挑战,这是在你的生活当中,减少“担心的心态”所起的作用的最有效的办法。
  Ask yourself over and over, “Will the future change as a result of my worrying about it?” Try to remember how many of the things you once worried about never become real at all.
  over and over: again and again adv.再三地, 反复地
  as a result of 作为…的结果
  “my worrying about it” 是有逻辑主语的动名词
  有关动名词逻辑主语的例子:Do you mind my smoking here?
  never … at all : no/not … at all 根本不…。
  译:请你反复地扪心自问:“我的担心会使未来有所改变吗?”切记:你过去曾经一度为之担心的好多情况,根本没有真的发生过。
  Also ask yourself: “What's the worst thing that could happen to me (or them), and what is the likelihood of it occurring?” You'll discover the absurdity of most worries in this way.
  译:再问问你自己:“我能发生什么最坏的事情?这种最坏的事情发生的可能性大小如何?”这样,你就会发现绝大多数不必要的担心都是荒唐可笑的。
  Act in direct conflict with your usual areas of worry. If you compulsively save for the future, use some money for your own enjoyment today. Enjoy life; don't waste the present with immobilizing thoughts about the future.
  immobilizing : 固定不动的
  译:行动起来吧!直接去抵制,不再去担心你通常所担心的问题。如果你强迫自己为未来存钱,那就把一部分钱拿出来今天享用吧!享受生活吧!不要浪费现有的一切去顽固地为未来着想吧。
  These are some techniques for minimizing worry in your life. But the most effective weapon you have is your own determination to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life.
  to drive this neurotic behavior away from your life:为“determination”的后置定语
  译:这一切就是把你生活中的担心降低到最小程度的办法。但是你所拥有的最有效的武器就是把这种神经过敏的担心从你的生活中赶出去的决心。


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